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English text version (programme announcment) of the standard format Raga CDs of the months

DE – Raga CDs of the Months (07/2016): 1000 x RAGAM (part 1 & 2)

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on July 18, 2016

The promotion initiative IMC – India meets Classic presents IMC OnAir’s show being broadcasted for two hours @ TIDE Radio 96.0 FM (and worldwide as webradio) as every 3rd Monday (monthly) with the topic “1000 x RAGAM – the relationship between North and South Indian Classics“.

dates of broadcasting…

Monday, 18th July 2016 – 10:00-11:58 pm CET (04:00-05:58 pm EST) @ TIDE Radio (DE)
(premiere:  28th May & 5th June 2007 @ Tide 96.0 FM)
broadcasting plan
| streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

1000Ragam-Cover-No-12-250.gifWith the past broadcastings IMC OnAir presents Indian Ragas as the basic form of North Indian Classic, the Hindustani music. Following a 24 hours time cyclus Indian ragas are played and listened at certain daily and night times or seasons allocated in the Thaat system of Vishnu Narayan Bhaktande, an Indian music scientist of the 19th century (1860-1936).

From ten main raga-s are derived all other raga forms, the females (ragini-s) and their sons (putra-s). For a comparison with the thaat system IMC OnAir’s radio show „1000 x RAGAMs“ will constrict onto the wide spread raga concept of South India, the >Melakarta system<.

The North Indian ragas are relocated in the South Indian Classic namely as ragam-s. The raga-s of North India (short form: raag-s) and the ragam-s of the South have many things in common. – And there are specifique developments which let exist these two music styles into our current times independently. – As a hypothetical factor for analysis of music theory exist substantial criterias going on to stage performance and instruments, used typically for the South Indian raga form by artists and composers.


In our show “1000xRAGAM” (part 1 and 2) you can listen to examples of South Indian ragas, so called RAGAM-S on Indian and Western instruments, e.g. Veena, Nadaswaram, Mridangam and Ghatam (percussion), in Vocal style, e.g. kriti-s and the Violin.

  • Prof. K. Swaminathan (Veena) – Bhaavanjali and temple singing Geethanjali from Tamil Nadu, presented by Smt. MS Subbulakshmi and Kaavyanjali by Sri Muruganar.
  • Sudha Ragunathan (Vocals) – Ragam Varali of Papanasam Sivan’s VIRUTHAM KAAVAAVAA, Embar Kannan (Violin) and Skanda Subramanian (Mridangam).
  • Kiranavali Vidyasankar (Vocals) – Kriti: ‘Sri Matrubhutham’ – Matrubhuteswaraswamy, Misra Chapu Talam (composer: Muthuswamy Dikshitar) – Smt. Padma Shankar (Violin) and K.S. Nagarajan (Mridangam)
  • Sri Umayalpuram K. Sivaraman (Mridangam) – Rasika Ranjani Sabha (Trichy 1996 – live) – Sri Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer (Vocals) and Sri Nagai Mulideran (Violin)
  • Sri Siva Vishnu temple (“live” recording of 2006): Raj(a)na Swaminathan (female Mridangam player) and the brothers Kasim & Babu (Nadaswaram duet), grandchild of the famous Nadaswaram player Sheikh Chinna Maulana Shahib

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CH – Raga CDs of the Months (07/2016): Grama – Music Scales of the Ancient India

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on July 11, 2016

The promotion initiative IMC – India meets Classic presents in July “Raga CD of the Months: Grama – music scales of the ancient India“.

– Ragamala painting –
the legend says sung by Tansen
Raga Deepak created fire.




.The ancient Raga-Ragini system (16th century) existed of 132 raga scales, with six male Ragas:
Bhairav, Deepak, Malkauns, Hindol, Shree and Megh.
Each male raga is linked with 5 female ragas (Ragini-s).
Each Raga-Ragini group has eight children (raga Putras (boys) and raga Vadhus (girls)).

Indian Rajput Miniature art painting (Mewar style) – Water color with Pure gold on cotton canvass (picture source: © Art of Legend India)

The seven main notes (or Swars) that are well-known today for the Raga scales in Indian classics of North and South India are: Sa (Shadaja), Re (Rishabh), Ga (Gandhara), Ma (Madhyama), Pa (Pancham), Dha (Dhaivat) and Ni (Nishad).

dates of broadcasting…

11th July 2016 – 10:00 pm EST (04:00 pm EST) @ Radio RaSA (CH)
(premiere: 16th February 2010 – 09:00 p.m. CET @ Tide Radio)
broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

Shadaja, Madhyama and Gandhar Gramas

The origin of the Ragas and it’s microtonal structure (22 shruti-s) can be dated back to the scripts of the ancient India and the Vedas (600-500 BC).

In the Natya Sastra, a musical treatise about the performing arts (theatres, dance and music) written by the Indian musicologist and sage Bharata Muni we find first references with two basic types of scales (grama-s) to which all Ragas of today can be referenced: Shadja Grama and Madhyama Grama.

Die sieben Hauptnoten (oder Swars) der uns heute bekannten Ragaskalen in der indischen Klassik Nord- und Südindiens sind Sa (Shadaja), Re (Rishabh), Ga (Gandhara), Ma (Madhyama), Pa (Pancham), Dha (Dhaivat)und Ni (Nishad).  

Extended Helmholtz-Ellis Ji Pitch Notation *

The accomplishment of the Natya Sastra is dated approximately between 200 BC and 200 AC. By its fundamental treatise of performing Indian arts till nowadays it is called the 5th Vedic book (Veda in Sanskrit means ‘knowledge’). Bharata Muni referred herefore to the Ghandarvaveda, a treatise about music, dance and theatre as part of the Upaveda, the technical manual of the Samaveda. This collection of hymnes is the 2nd book of the Hindu scripts and part of the 1st 4 Vedic books. 75 of the melodies (samagana) in the Samaveda derivate from the Rigveda, same a collection of hymnes sung by the priests of Vedic religion for praising different deities. The Rigveda is dated aproximately between 1700-1100 BC.

*) Notation in ‘The Extended Helmholtz-Ellis Ji Pitch Notation’ (Wolfang v. Schweinitz – 16.02.2007) /
microtonal accidentals designed by Marc Sabat & Wolfgang von Schweinitz (2004/2005) / Just Intonation (JI) of Indian Scales (@ Wikipedia)

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A – Raga CDs of the Months (07/2016): Pankaj Mullick, Rabindra Sangeet and the Indian Film

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on July 10, 2016

150th anniversary of Rabindranath Tagore
– Pankaj Mullick, Rabindra Sangeet and the Indian Film

The South Indian subcontinent celebrates annually the birthday of Rabindranath Tagore: “Kabi Pranam – A tribute to Tagore “. On 7th May we can remember on one of the last universal genius of the 20th century. R. Tagore (1861-1941) was poet, writer, musician, painter, author of dance dramas, publisher and social reformer …

Uruguay Stamps - 150th Tagore Anniversary

Uruguay Stamps – 150th Tagore Anniversary

In 2011 Bangladesh and India, particularly West Bengal celebrated heavily the 150th anniversary of Tagore. Over a whole year with innumerable events at public places, in theatres, schools, in book shops among the literary friends millions remind of Tagore’s (art) works.

From given cause of the 150th anniversary the government in SriLanka and Uruguay appreciated the first Indian Nobel Laureate for Literature with a special stamp edition. Tagore had visited Sri Lanka in the years 1922, 1928 and 1934.

from left to right: Tagore as painter, Argentina Edition, Tagore’s PlayPost Office
(Source: All the stamps on this website with courtesy to Kumar Kamaleshan Nair (Trivandrum) – )

The ceremonies which took place since 7th May show once more that the spirit of Tagore is alive through over all generations and within all social classes. The “Daily  Star”, presently the biggest English-language daily newspaper in Bangladesh titles Tagore as “An internationalist through and through” appropriate to his global meaning.

dates of broadcasting …

10th July 2016 – 05:00 pm EST (11:00 pm CEST) @ Radio FRO (A)
(premiere: 16th May 2011 – 11:00 pm CET (05:00 EST) @ TIDE Radio)
broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

IMC – India meets Classic presented with it’s show “Rabindra Sangeet – A Voice for All!” the outstanding Rabindranath Tagore already. Rabindra Sangeet is a category which was established in the 20th century by Tagore himself.
It is a musical-literary concept where Tagore embedded equally poems and songs into Indian classical music, same North Indian (Hindustani) as South Indian classics (Carnatic).

Pankaj Kumar Mullick was as singers, actor (debut in the film Mukti, 1937), composer (as music director, conductor / arranger), radio maker and as a film producer. Mullick is India’s most prominent interpreter of Rabindra Sangeet.
Pankaj Mullick’s interest in Rabindra Sangeet came off by the contact with the Tagore family, first by meeting with Dinendranath Tagore, a grandnephew of Tagore, and himself composer and music arranger as later Mullick became on his own.
When Rabindranath Tagore heard Pankaj Mullick’s singing for the first time he embraced Mullick spontaneously as it is reported. And Tagore permitted Mullick to set all his writingsinto music which should not be mastered by Tagore himselve during life times. This granted Tagore uniquely only to Mullick instead Tagore self-confidently understood himself as the most important poet of India. Mullick was also first who added the Tabla as accompanying instrument. The Tabla is a percussion instrument (drum pair) of North Indian classics (Hindustani).

Rabindranth Tagore was 44 years old, when Pankaj Mullick was born on 10 May 1905 in Calcutta. Mullick should accede the world to make Indian history as famous singer, actor, independent music director and film producer. Pankaj Mullick lived until 1978 in Calcutta. Differently than many of his colleagues he did not move to Mumbai, India’s film capital. He followed only some few orders for Mumbai productions like Zalzala in the year 1952, a filming of Tagore’s novella Char Adhaya and Kastoori (with film director: Gyan Mukherjee).
Pankaj Mullick was a pioneer of Indian film. He introduced the Playback singing together with the film director Nitin Bose (Dhhop Chhaon, 1935), as we know it these days in the Bollywood blockbusters.

As it was very usual for Mullick’s time and as all film activists (actors, composers) and playback singers experienced, also Pankaj Mullick was trained comprehensively in Indian Classical music, e.g. in Dhrupad style, the oldest vocal form of North Indian classis or the Khayal, a more modern form. Mullick inherited his musical interest from his father, who demonstrated a large interest in the traditional forms of Bengali music.

Till in the high ages Mullick was active as a music director. His last film was Janhabi Jamunia Bigolito Karuna in the year 1972. One year later Pankaj Mullick was distinguished at the age of 68 by the Indian government for his lifework and his earnings for Indian cinema. Mullick received the most important Indian film prize, the Dadasaheb Phalke Award.

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DE – Raga CDs of the Month (07/2016): From Hawaii to South Asia – The Indian Classical Guitar (short version)

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on July 7, 2016

With the IMC programme in recent years (2006-2016) for Indian classical music we experienced instruments that come from the West ( see ). Like the violin in the South Indian classical music, the hand-operated harmonium as an accompanying instrument and successor of the Sarangi (Indian fiddle) or the saxophone, as we know it from Jazz and the mandolin, a double-string instrument from Italy.
There are many reasons that explain the arrival of Western instruments in the collective of traditional Indian wind, string and percussion instruments. There existed the military orchestras of the British Empire, French missionaries in the 19th century, the chapels of the Maharajas or film scores from Mumbai as the Bollywood capital. The sound of these new instruments inspired musicians to experiment. With structural changes and special playing techniques they adapted to the particular interpretations and Indian style of Ragas and Ragams (North and South Indian classics).

dates of broadcasting…

7th July 2016 – 03:00-04:00 am EST (0900-10:00 pm CET) @ radio (DE)
(premiere: 25th May 2015 – 03:00-05:00 pm EST @ radio
InternetStream (Web & Mobile Radio) | PodCasting | broadcasting plan

The so called slide bar defines the height of the guitar tone by sliding on the free-swinging strings a lot more using a piece of iron, rather than to shorten or to extend by tapping the frets (on the guitar keyboard). Beside their own creations of slide bars there are various forms, materials and colours on the market. Until the 80s manufacturers experimented with new materials. Glas or pyrex, inorganic cobalt oxid, bone or porcelain can produce different timbres of sound.

different models of Indian Classical Guitars (Slide guitars) …

(from let to right: Hansa Veena, Chaturangi, Shankar Guitar, Mohan Veena, Swar Veena)

History conveys that in 1931 a young Hawaiians came to India with his guitar in the luggage. Tau Moe was his name. The importance of Tau Moe for the Indian slide guitar made him well known in India, more as in his homeland. First musicians in Indian West Bengal played songs on the Hawaiian guitar, performing compositions from the repertoire of the first Indian Nobel laureate Tagore Rabindranat (Rec.: With these lyrics and melodies of Tagore a separate vocal genre developed as ‘Rabindra Sangeet’).

In addition to introducing the Hawaiian guitar and playing techniques of by Tao Moe there exist another version of narration. It is said that Gabriel Davion introduced in India to play the guitar with a steel bar. Gabriel Davion was a sailor of Indian descent. He was allegedly abducted by Portuguese sailors in 1876 to Hawaii. Gabriel Davion had oriented himself probably to the slide technique of the Vichitra Vina and Gotuvadyam, two Indian instruments (lutes). Since the 11th century the slide technique is known in India.

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CH – Raga CDs of the months (06/2016): Mangala Snaanam – Mangala Isai – No Indian Wedding without the Nahdaswaram

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on June 27, 2016

Because of European Soccer Championship 2016 in France
and special broadcasting @ Rdio RaSA today one hour later onair…

Mangala Snaanam – Mangala Isai  (Holy Bath – Holy Music)… No Indian wedding without the Nadhaswaram.

Nadhaswaram Troupe in HYDERABAD @ The Hindu (

Under all the different Indian instruments we meet up the Nadhaswaram. It is world-wide the loudest, non metallic acoustical instrument, comparable with the volume of a trumpet. This wind instrument belongs to the group of the aerophones and is played mainly in South India (see Carnatic music). The Mukhavina is the much smaller version (10 cm) used for folk music. In North Indian Classical music (Hindustani) exists the relative of the Nadhaswaram, the Shehnai.

In India the Nadhaswaram or Nagaswaram is counted as an auspicious wind instrument – Mangala Vadya. Hardly any other instrument in Indian classics is in its character so close to the human voice.

date of broadcasting…

27th June 2016 – 04:00 05:00 pm EST (10:00 11:00 pm CET) @ Radio RaSA (CH)
(premiere: 19th January 2010 – 09:00 p.m. CET @ Tide Radio)
broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

An important role for the origin of the Nadhaswaram plays the Tiruvarur district in the South Indian Federal State Tamil-Nadu. Over many centuries Tiruvarur was a cultural center. The ancient city Tiruvarur is famous for the Sri Tyagaraja Tempel.

From Tiruvarur the tradition has its seed that two Nadhaswarm players are accompanied by two percussionists on the Thavil (barrel drum).

Thavil and Nadhaswaram are substantial components of the traditional celebrations and ceremonies in South India. With its impressing volume the Nadhaswaram usually is played out of doors.

The holy music (Mangala Isai) has great importance in Hindu temples and for further areas of Indian life. A colourful potpourrie of Indian music, traditional forms, folk music up to contemporary styles we find at an Indian Wedding ceremony.

Nadhaswaram Duo accompanied by 2 Thavil players – Source: Wikipedia (ENG):
Mambalam M. K. S. Siva & Sri K. Durga Prasad (Nadhaswaram), Sri P. Arulanandan & Sri V. M. Palanivel (Thavil)

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A – Raga CDs of the Months (06/2016): Magic in Music – A Tribute to Bhimsen Joshi

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on June 26, 2016

Can you imagine India in 1933 ? – It was the year, when Gandhi stepped into hunger strike against caste discrimination. In the same year a small boy at the age of 11 years hit the road alone obsessed to find a music teacher. Bhimsen Gururaj Joshi was his name, member of a Brahmin family, son of a school teacher and the eldest with 15 siblings. Joshi’s mother died very early.

Bhimsen Joshi and his “Golden Voice” of 3 octaves should have a big influence onto North Indian classical music considerably till his death in January 2011. In the obituary of Indian Express one could read: “The voice of the  last Titan of North Indian Classics now remains always muted, but his melodies will always continue.” IMC OnAir’s new radio show “Magic in music” is a tribute to this exceptional artist, to Bhimsen Joshi (02/04/1922 – 01/24/2011).

dates of broadcasting …

26th June  2016 – 05:00 p.m. EST (11:00 pm CEST) @ Radio FRO (A
(premiere: 18th April 2011 – 10:00 pm CET (04:00 pm EST) @ Tide Radio)
broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

Der Autoliebhaber Bhimsen Joshi fuhr Mercedes

The sportive car lover Bhimsen Joshi drove Mercedes

Joshi at the age of 14 years found his master (guru). He was Rambhau Kundgolkar. We know this actor and singer of North Indian Classics (Hindustani) rather common as Pandit Sawai Gandharva. He lived from 1886 to 1952. The greatest merit of Pandit Gandharva is the popularization of the vocal style in the tradition of Kirana Gharana. Saway Gandharva had pupils like Bhimsen Joshi and the famous female vocalist Gangubai Hangal. Herefore we refer to our radio show “Dr. Gangubai Hangal – Voice of Tradition“.

The majority of the singers of Hindustani traditionally belong to the Kirana Gharana. This music school was considerably created by Abdul Karim Khan and his cousin Abdul Wahid Khan and dominated till the 40th and 50th of last century. Abdul Karim and Abdul Wahid revolutionized the modern singing form of Khayal style. They added a slow tempo, Vilambit. So each note of a Raga scala, note for note can be defined by the singer in a performance.
Affected by the South Indian Classics (Carnatic) Abdul Karim Khan payed special attention to the ornamental art. The patterns are wavy and consist only of the note material of the Raga form itself (Sargam Taan). It is an attribute of vocals in Kirana Gharana style that the second note “Rishabh” is played/sung as “komal” which means neither diminished (flat) nor increased (major) and it’s intonation isn’t stressed (“soft corner”).

For his own artistic development Bhimsen Joshi had woven also style elements from other Gharanas (beside the Kirana Gharana) into his indiviual singing and interpretation style.

At the age of 31 years Bhimsen Joshi created the Sawai Gandharva Sangeet Mahotsav, in honours of his teacher Sawai Gandharva and as platform for the singing art of Kirana Gharana. Today the three days event is simply well-known as Sawai, which always takes place in December. It is one of the most important festivals, if not even that most important for Indian Classical music worldwide. Since 1953 the music festival Sawai Gandharva takes place annually in Pune and was led by Bhimseh Joshi himself for 49 years, until 2002. Today the Sawai is organized by Bhimsen’s son Shrinivas Joshi. For each new and upcoming generation of musicians of Indian Classics an invitation for the Sawai Gandharva is a guarantee for the beginning of a professional career.

Very late in the year 2008 Bhimsen Joshi received the “Jewel from India”, the Bharat Ratna. It is the highest civil order of India. The Bharat Ratna was assigned first time in the year 1954. With the Bharat Ratna artists, e.g. litterateurs and scientists are decorated for their social earnings/services. Beside Bhimsen Joshi received musicians the Bharat Ratna such as sitar legend Ravi Shankar (1999) or Lata Mangeshkar (2001) who is a female vocalist for Indian film (Bollywood).

Bharatratna Pandit Bhimsen Joshi Kaladalan: The music library, located on the ground floor, has 28 cubicles each of which is equipped with a computer and headphones. Music lovers can enjoy the music for which they will be charged. (Source: Sakaal Times)

Bharatratna Pandit Bhimsen Joshi Kaladalan (Pune, Vasantrao Bagul garden grounds, Sahakar Nagar): The music library, located on the ground floor, has 28 cubicles each of which is equipped with a computer and headphones. Music lovers can enjoy the music for which they will be charged. (Source: Sakaal Times (04/2011))

The inheritance of Bhimsen Joshi will not only live on in the form of memories and honors. With an inauguration celebration in February 2011 the city administration of Pune designated a new art center in appreciation of Pandit Bhimsen Joshi as “Bharatratna Pandit Bhimsen Joshi Kaladalan“… and the Federal State government presented a music scholarship for classical music in memories of the legend Bhimsen Joshi.

Bhimsen Joshi sung duets (Jugalbandi) with great vocal maestros like Pt. Jasraj, Ustad Rashid Khan or
with Dr. Balamurali Krishna (BMK) in two different languages (Joshi in Hindi and BMK in South Indian languages)…


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DE – Raga CDs of the months (06/2016): Music & Language

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on June 20, 2016

The relationship between music and language, between sounds and the spoken word or vocals is a very special one.

Busto di Pitagora. Copia romana di originale greco. Musei Capitolini, Roma.

Busto di Pitagora. Copia romana di originale greco. Musei Capitolini, Roma. (Source: Wikipedia (ENG))

The grammarians of Sanskrit, the ancient Indian science language regard music and language as divergent aspects of one and the same phenomena.

With Indian classial music (Hindustani, Carnatic) there is a multiplicity in common under the topic to “music and language “, which is the bases of the occidental harmonics, dated back to the founder of the mathematical analysis of music by Pythagoras of Samos who had evidenced empirically the harmonic intervals – approximately written before 500 B.C. .

Music seems to be reflected far less vaguely in us than it had been granted so far. Rather our perceptions of sounds are defined very exactly by outlined possibilities and borders. The audiomental system has greater importance than one had assumed recently.

dates of broadcasting…

21st  June 2016 – 10:00 – 11:58 pm CET (04:00-05:58 pm EST) @ Tide Radio (DE)
(premiere: 16th March 2010 (part 1) | 20th April 2010 – 09:00 pm CET @ Tide Radio)
broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

As shown by recent studies the perception of music and ‘music making’ incorporate nearby almost all regions of the brain. The widespread acceptance that music is processed in the right brain hemisphere and language in the left had completely been wrong. The current research shows that language and music are assimilated almost identically. The profound emotional content of music, from felicity to sadness affects particularly stimulating our brain and also produces frequently physically intensively perceptible reactions to the listener.

Music settles visibly in our life, in brain activities which are measurable nowadays and made vividly visible with modern medical imaging techniques e.g. (functional) magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) or Magnetoencephalography (MEG), see picture below.

In part 1 (04:00-04:58 pm EST) IMC – India meets Classic presents the structure of music & language. The  following part 2 (05:00-05:58 pm EST) will bring light up the social psychological meaning of music for individual and community interaction processes influenced by the nature of music as communication form.

Stefan Koelsch: Nature Neuroscience 7(3), 2004: Music, Language and Meaning: Brain Signatures of Semantic Processing

Stefan Koelsch: Nature Neuroscience 7(3), 2004: Music, Language and Meaning: Brain Signatures of Semantic Processing

short paper (pdf: German | English)

Note: IMC OnAir’s radio show “music and language” in two parts (2x 58 min.) represents a fundamental introduction regarding the multiplicity of sciences involved (music ethnology,  anthropology, language and social sciences, neuro sciences, psychology, computer sciences (artificial intelligence) among others).

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DE – Raga CDs of the Months (06/2016): “NATYA – the relevance of Ragas for Indian Dance & Theatre”

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on June 19, 2016

In performing arts of India the term “Natya” means a combination of movements, mimics (mostly facial expressions), costumes, human psychology and “great stories“. The Indian dance is in it’s traditional form till today “stories telling”.
The Indian theatre was subordinated to a paradigm shift same as the raga-s under Muslim rulership and Persian influences: it progressed from temple rites to courtly entertainment for art lovers.
Originally the storytellers, the Kathaks – according to the name for their dance form, the Kathak – tramped in Northern India as nomadic bards from village to village. In the temple plants the Kathaks played myths and instructive stories from old writings. The costumes and topic tables of these subjects in India’s traditional dancing forms often appear as motives in the miniature paintings, the so called Ragamala-s of the Mughal period (pictures see “instruments” & “scenes of art“).
Indian dance dramas – Bharata Naatya Sampradaya
Bharata Naatya Sampradaya… RAM (2004, The Hindu) Dance Drama Goddess Durga (The Hindu, 2004) Mythological Themes - Krishna (The Hindu, 2004)
from left to right: RAM | dance drama Goddess Durga | mythologic themes “Krishna”
source: The Hindu, 2004
The classical role of dance in India had developed very early. Dances were the component of religious rites. The dancers admired the Gods by “telling” stories from their life and their heroic deeds.
In Western world today “Bharata Natyam” is well-known, as one of the four main forms of Indian dances, energetically and with extremely precise, balanced motion-sequences.
dates of broadcasting…

19th June 2016 – 09:02-11:00 am EST (15:02-17:00 pm CET) @ radio (DE)
(premiere: 1st April & 6th May 2008 – 09:00 pm CET @ Tide 96.0 FM)
broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

However Bharata Natyam does not mean “Indian dance”, a widespread misbelieve. This term (after Purandara Dasa (14884-1564)) embodies the three living forms of Indian dance:

  • Bha or Bhava, the expression,
  • Ra for Raga or melody and
  • Ta for Tala, the rhythm (rhythmic circles).
India’s outstanding BharataNatyam dancers…

Priyadarshini Govind (Hinduonnet, 2004) Maitreyi Sarma and Ananda Shankar - MUM’S The Word (Hinduonnet, 2005) Geeta Chandran (Hinduonnet, 2005) Dr. Srekala Bharath (Hinduonnet, 2008)

from left to right: Priyadarhini Govind | MaitreyiSarma & Dr. Ananda Shankar Jayant | Geeta Chandran | Dr. Srekala Bharath
source: Hinduonnet, 2004 (Avinash Pasricha), 2005 (K. Gajendran, R. Shivaji Rao), 2008 (V. Ganesan)
The term Raag (= “tonal colouring”) for the first time appears in the Natya Shastra (4th century BC – 2nd century AC), a handbook for dramaturgy written by the mythic Brahman Bharata Muni, a priest and sage. The seven (7) main notes (sapta svaras), those one also today are used for the Raga interpretation are connected with different mind affections (emotions = Rasa-s). In the Natya Sastra also music instruments and their handling are described. It proves four categories: lutes (tata), flutes (Sushira), cymbals (Ghana) and drums (avanadha)..

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DE – Raga CDs of the Months (06/2016): Energy of the Sound – Raga Chikitsa (short version).

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on June 16, 2016

Energy of the Sound – Raga Chikitsa. [Subtitle: Nada Chikitsa]

In India had been recognized the response function of ragas as complementary medicine very early for the emotional well-being and health of the people, their physiological effect on the mind, body and soul. In the Indian temples had been used rhythmic sounds of bells, horns and use of shells for the ceremonies, from the knowledge of their therapeutic effect.

Musical sound and its vibrational patterns (Dwhani) are a form of energy in motion transmitted through the medium of air (Vayu) which can penetrate the human body down to each individual cell. In the Indian understanding of music the sound is an energetic form of a cosmic / universal dimension as the source of all being.

dates of broadcasting …

16th June 2016 – 03:00-04:00 EST (09:00-10:00 pm CET) @ radio (DE/Berlin)
(premiere: 19th February 2012 @ radio
broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

Sound has healing power. The rhythm in music is directly related to the heart beat. It finds its equivalence in tempo and rhythm. The breath corresponds to the Hindu understanding as Phrana as the sound of life energy. In the history of South Indian classical music (Carnatic) the Melakarta system was developed as we know it today. It is a classification of 72 main ragams. The number 72 corresponds to the 72 main nerve trunks.

Effect of Saptaswaras and Chakra Meditation

Effect of Saptaswaras and Chakra Meditation (Source: A. Mahesh – Music Therapy Blog)

The oldest systematic texts, which are known in human history are the Vedas. There are treatises on philosophy, the sense of life and wisdom for a healthy living. Music is part of Updaveda, a sub category of the Vedas. Upaveda is a science-based system built on the Vedic teachings. There are four (4) Upavedas: 1. Ayurveda (on medicine), 2. Gandharvaveda (about music, dance aesthetics us), 3. Dhanurveda (about archery, war and martial arts) and 4. Sthapatyaveda (on architecture, urban planning, etc.).

In our radio show Nada – A concept of sound we have dealt with the outer and inner sound, the nada yoga (nada = sound). You can find the show in our archive for re-listening – . This topic leads us to the theme of today’s program: “Raga Chikitsa“. It deals explicitly with the therapeutic effect of the Raga scales of North Indian (Hindustani) and South Indian Classics (Carnatic).
Chikitsa raga is a scripture of the ancient India. The translation of Raga Chikitsa is: “The knowledge about the use of ragas for healing.” – Chikitsa comes from Sanskrit and means on its own: “The practice of medical science and its therapeutic application“.

Bringing the knowledge of Indian classical music – Raga Ragini Vidaya – and Raga Chikitsa together, we have the basic blocks to describe the therapeutic effects of Indian ragas.


Suppl. Note: In the Samaveda, an ancient text of Ayurveda describes in detail the phenomenon of sound for music therapeutic purposes. The human body is dominated by the three doshas: Vatta, Pitta and Kapha. You will find the program “Ragas Time Cycles – Ayurvedic Princips” in our media archive for re-listening: .


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CH – Raga CDs of the Months (06/2016): Five minus 1 – Raga Malashree

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on June 13, 2016

The Ragas and Ragams of North and South Indian Classics can exhibit most diverse combinations in the ascending and descending scale. In our time the Indian music maestros, vocalists and instrumentalists present some few hundred Ragas from thousands of combinations to the audience and listeners. The 5 notes (Andav), 6 notes (Sadava) or 7 notes Ragas (Sapta) are established.

In India one meets the opinion among musicologists and musicians as facts that Ragas with at least five notes (Audav/Sanskrit = five (5)) have to be played.

dates of broadcasting…

13th June 2016 – 04:00 pm EST (10:00 pm CET) @ Radio RaSA (CH)
(premiere: 21st December 2009 (04:00 pm EST) @ Tide Radio)
broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

Our topic „five minus 1″ lets suspect that there must exist 4 notes ragas in Indian Classics also. The ancient Raga Malashree or Malshree is the representative of this category, a Raga of North Indian Classics, the Hindustani music. Its phonetically identical namesake Malasri is even a 3 note Raga.

Raga Malasri scala on key note C : C E G C | Sa – Ga – Pa – Sa’ ( 1 3 5 )
Raga Malashree plus 7th pitch Ni (1 3 5 7)

Raga MalaShree regularly possesses four (4) notes, Svarantara (popular type). The 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th pitch is played: SA – Ga – Pa and Ni. It is a kind of major triad with an extended 7th pitch, in Jazz a major seven (maj 7).

The name Malashri appears in India also as maiden name. Malashri originates from Sanskrit and means „marvelous garland “.

Ragamala paintings from Rajasthan (India):
Malasri Ragini – 3rd wife of male Raga Bhairava (morning raga)


left: c. 1650, artist: unknown  (British Library) | right: c. 1605, artist: Nisaruddin (Los Angeles County Museum of Art)

The „Garland of Ragas“ is illustsrated by motives and a kind of story telling in the Indian miniature painting, the Ragamala-s.  IMC – India meets Classic presented the special composition form in one of it’s former shows.


Raga Malasri (3 notes) and Malshree (4 notes):
the selected key note is C the scale has 3 (Malasri) or 4 (Malshree) notes plus the octave
the scale is ascending
the default scale keynote is C
scale on C (see displayed graphically) : C E G (B) C
scale intervals in semitone or half steps from key note : 0 4 7 (11) 12
note to note interval : M3 m3 P4 (Malasri) or M3 (Malshree)
interval quality : dd: doubly diminished, d: diminished, m: minor, P: perfect, M: major,
: augmented, dA: doubly augmented
(Source: –

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