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Archive for March, 2016

FB group “Indian Classical” oversteps >18,000 group members end of March 2016

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on March 31, 2016

Tks by heart to all our new FB group members we got more than 2,000 over last 12 months… “Indian Classical” shows a significantly growth of 12.5 % in one year (Rec.: In March 2015 we counted 16,000 musical friends on Facebook).

Many tks/ElJay Arem (the group owner/chief editor of IMCRadio.net)

FB-Group-Indian-Classical-18000-Members-31032016-1

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CH – Raga CDs des Monats… (03/2016): Moorchana-s… Die Matrix der Seele durch Musik.

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on March 28, 2016

Moorchana-s
– Die Matrix der Seele durch Musik.

In der nordindischen und südindischen Klassik gehen die Ragas und Ragams auf die älteste musikalische Abhandlung des Weisen Matanga Muni zurück. Er ist der Verfasser des Brihaddeshi. Matanga lebte vor 2000 Jahren. Von ihm wurden die Moorchana-s (o. Mūrcchanā-s) bereits beschrieben.

Matanga Muni führte in der musikalischen Tradition – Ghandarva – den Begriff Moorchanas ein, in Bezug auf eine frühere Vorform der Ragas, den Jati-s (Jati-Gaan).

“Moorchana” leitet sich aus dem Wortstamm “Moorcha“, ab. Im Sanskrit bedeutet dies: “die Unbewusstheit” (unconsiousness)…

Die Moorchana-s übernehmen eine wichtige Funktion in der Gestaltung von Ragakompositionen. Mit ihnen kann jede der sieben (7) Hauptstufen einer Ragaskale in den Grundton “Sa” verwandelt werden, von dem aus neue Ragas mit den gleichen Intervallabständen des ursprünglichen Ragas entwickelt werden. Dieser “modale Shift” – Shadja – bewirkt in der akkustischen Wahrnehmung eine Veränderung des emotionalen Ausdrucks des ursprünglichen Ragas. Diese Technik wird Moorchana Paddhati genannt.

imc-onair-imcradio-net-modal-shift-fixed-tonic-method-022009-small-2

Neben dieser antiken Form des modalen Shiftens gibt es eine modernere Variante zur Ableitung der Skalen, dem fixiterten System des Grundtons (fixed Tonic method). Hier wird die erste Stufe Sa beibehalten und einzelne Intervallabstände verändert.

Eine Ragaform, die aus verschiedenen Moorchana-s hervorgeht, wird Moorchanakaraka Raga genannt.

Sendetermine…

28. März 2016 – 22:00 Uhr MEST (04:00 pm EST) @ Radio RaSA (CH)
(Premiere: 17. Februar 2009 (23:00) @ Tide Radio)
broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

Im Äusseren sind die Moorchanas ein Spiegel der Welt. Der Grundton Sa erzählt ihre Geschichte, wie eine Mixtur von Farben, die von dieser einzelnen Note “Sa” erzählt wird.

Ein Raga ist die Ausdehnung und Kontraktion des Haupttons Sa, wie das Universum selbst erschaffen wurde, wie es sich ausdehnte und begrenzt ist. Das Geheimnis der Moorchanas ist, das Ende mit dem Anfang zu verknüpfen, in einem endlosen Kreislauf der Erneuerung. Dieser Punkt “Sam“, mit Neubeginn wieder “Sa”, ist das Ursprungswort für “Samadhi”, der Verschmelzung mit dem Göttlichen (Devi):

Moorchana sangeet ki papaharini devi hai.” (Hindi)

(Übersetzung: In der Musik sind die Moorchana-s das Göttliche, das von allen Sünden befreit; das Göttliche, das die Seele im Zustand der Sündenlosigkeit besucht.)

Mit Methoden der modularen Arithmetik können die Moorchanas und die sich daraus ableitenden Ragaskalen sehr einfach ermittelt werden. Auch für den Mathematiklaien steht eine 12x12er-Matrix – Moorchana Transform Matrix (MTM) zur Verfügung, mit der sich die Moorchanas eines Ragas sehr schnell berechnen lassen.
Moochana-s No. 1-14Die wissenschaftliche Aufarbeitung der Moorchana-s mit mathematischen und computergestützten Modellen hilft uns im rationalen Sinne, die Komplexität der Moorchanas zu entzerren und das kompositorische, gestalterisches Potential für Ragaskalen zu begreifen.

Auf der Basis der 7 Hauptnoten (svara-s), dem melodischen Grundmaterial eines Ragas, werden die Moorchanas in 14 sequentielle Ordnungsmuster gefasst.

sadja-grama (1-7): Uttaramandra | 4 (sa) – 3 (ri) – 2 (ga) – 4 (ma) – 4 (pa) – 3 (dha) – 2 (ni)
Madhyama-grama (8-14): Sauviri | 4 (ma) – 3 (pa) – 4 (Dha) – 2 (ni) – 4 (sa) – 3 (ri) – 2 (ga)

Das System der Moorchana-s ist die umfassendste Quelle, neue Ragas zu entdecken. Der Begriff der Harmonie in der indischen Klassik versteht sich als eine Art Synphonie der Strasse, dem melodischen Terrain eines Ragas. Wie alle Strassen, führen sie in die Welt hinaus; man kann auf ihnen aber auch wieder zurückkehren. So bewegen wir uns mit Hilfe der Moorchanas durch eine Ragaskala, zyklisch in der aufsteigenden und absteigenden Form.

In ihrem ruhenden Zustand des Unbewussten verharren die Moorchana-s still, bis sie uns durch einen “reinen Geist” den Weg zu neuen Ragas und ihren Platz innerhalb der universellen Familie von Ragaskalen öffnen – ein ähnlicher Zustand, wie er sich uns durch Meditationspraxis offenbaren kann.

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CH – Raga CDs of the Months… (03/2016): Moorchana-s… the Matrix of Soul by Music.

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on March 28, 2016

Moorchana-s
– The Matrix of Soul by Music…

The Ragas and Ragams of North Indian and South Indian Classics trace back to the oldest musical treatise of the sage Matanga Muni. He is the author of the Brihaddeshi. Matanga lived before 2000 years… and he described already the Moorchana-s (or Mūrcchanā-s).

Matanga Muni introduced the term Moorchanas to the musical tradition – Ghandarva -, regarding an earlier preform of the Ragas, the Jati-s (Jati Gaan).

“Moorchana” is derived from the root “Moorcha”. In Sanskrit it means: “unconsciousness”.

The Moorchana-s overtake an important function for the arrangement of Raga compositions. Each of the seven (7) main pitches of a Raga scale can be transformed into the basic tone  “SA” (1st pitch), from where new Ragas with the same interval distances of the original Ragas are developed. This “modal SHIFT” – Shadja – causes a change of the emotional expression of the original Ragas by an audible perception. This technique is called Moorchana Paddhati.

imc-onair-imcradio-net-modal-shift-fixed-tonic-method-022009-small-2

Beside this ancient form of modal shifting there is a more modern variant for the derivation of scales, the fixed Tonic method. Here the first pitch SA is maintained and individual intervals are changed.

A raga form, which is emanated from different Moorchana-s is called Moorchanakaraka Raga.

dates of broadcasting…

28th March 2016 – 04:00 pm EST (10:00 pm CET) @ Radio RaSA (CH)
(premiere: 17th February 2009 – 11:00 pm CET (05:00 pm EST) @ Tide Radio)
broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

In the exterior world the Moorchana-s are a mirror of the world. The basic tone SA tells its history same as a mixture of colours, which is told by this individual note “SA”.

A Raga is the expansion and contraction of the main tone SA (1st pitch) as the universe was created, as it expanded and is limited. The secret of the Moorchana-s is to link the end with the beginning in an endless cycle of the renewal. This point “SAM “, with new beginning again on “SA”, is the origin word for “Samadhi“, the fusion with the divine (Devi):

Moorchana sangeet ki papaharini devi hai.” (Hindi)

(translation: In music the Moorchana-s are the divine, which release from all sins; the divine that visits the soul in the condition of free from sin.)

With methods of modular arithmetic the Moorchana-s and raga scales deriving from it can be determined easily. For the mathematics layman by a 12×12er-Matrix – Moorchana Transform matrix (MTM) – the Moorchanas of a Ragas can be computed very fast.
Moochana-s No. 1-14The scientific processing of the Moorchana-s with mathematical and computer-assisted models helps us in the rational sense to equalise the complexity of the Moorchana-s and for understanding the compositorial and formative potential for Raga scales.

On the basis of the 7 main notes (svara-s), the melodic basic material of a Raga the Moorchana-s are seized into 14 sequential order samples.


sadja-grama (1-7): Uttaramandra
| 4 (sa) – 3 (ri) – 2 (ga) – 4 (ma) – 4 (pa) – 3 (dha) – 2 (ni)
Madhyama-grama (8-14): Sauviri | 4 (ma) – 3 (pa) – 4 (Dha) – 2 (ni) – 4 (sa) – 3 (ri) – 2 (ga)

The system of the Moorchana-s is the most comprehensive source to discover new Ragas. The term of the harmony in Indian Classics can be understood as a kind of Symphony of the Road, the melodic terrain of Ragas. Like all roads, they lead out into the world; one can return on them in addition, again. Thus we cleave with the help of the Moorchana-s through a Raga scale cyclically in the ascending and descending form.

In their resting condition of the unconscious the Moorchana-s remain quietly, until they open us by a “pure spirit” the path to new Ragas and opening us their place within the universal family of Raga scales – a similar state as it can reveal itself to us by meditation.

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A – Raga CDs of the Months (03/2016): Dr. Gangubai Hangal – Voice of Tradition (biography)

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on March 27, 2016

“Voice of Tradition – Dr. Gangubai Hangal” (a biographic radio show)

Dr. Gangubai Gangubai (3/5/1913-7/21/2009) was a representative of North Indian Classics. This exceptional vocalist was “on air” in IMC OnAir’s radio show “Women in Indian Classics” (part 1) beside important female representatives of North and South India.

The 103rd birthday (5th March) of Gangubai Hangal gives us some seriously reasons we like to dedicate the radio show on Easter Sunday @ Radio FRO (and worldwide as webradio) to this outstanding artist who was called “Father of the Khayal” (mainly because of Gangubai’s androgynous voice).

dates of broadcasting…

27th March 2016 – 05:00 pm EST (11:00 pm CET) @ Radio RaFRO (A)
(premiere: 17th August 2010 – 09:00 pm CET @ TIDE Radio)
broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

In the historical meaning we can see Gangubai as the most influential artist who helped women to the emancipation in Indian vocals. Beside four honorary doctorate Gangubai received in 1971 – at the age of 58 years – the Padma Bhushan, and lately in 2002 the Padma Vibhushan, the second highest civilian order of India. 2002 was also the year in which Gangubai was diagnosed of bone cancer she successfully overcame after three years treatment.

Gangubai was born 1913 in Karnataka, a South Indian Federal State. Gangubai originates from a simple family, whose earlier generations belonged to the Gangamats, the caste of agricultural boat people. In her early career Gangubai’s origin from this social milleu she was refused by the orthodox Brahmans. It wasn’t modern that a woman earns her living costs with arts. Although Gangubai’s father, Shri Nadgir and her husband, Shri Gururao Kaulgi likewise belonged to the caste of Brahmans in her family prevailed a consciousness that a woman is ‘Angavashtra’ (literally meaning: an additional article of clothing, which decorates subtle men as status symbol).

In 1928 the family of Gangubai moved 20 kilometres southeast, from Dharwad as the place of her birth to Hubli that time like today a commercial centre with approx. 1,5 million inhabitants. Hubli remained for Gangubai as the adopted home till her dying on 21st July 2009.

Sources (from left to right): with courtesy thank’s to indiasummary.com, Vikas Zutshi (Blogspot), Wikipedia.org, (1st row);
Eric Parker (Flickr), Hinduonnet.com, cbc.ca/daylife.com/Guardian.co.uk (2nd row)

Gangubai had at the age of 20 years in 1933 with a concert in Bombay (Mumbai) her artistic break-through. Relevant influence on the vocal qualities beside her musical talent had the strict training, which Gangubai received for 15 years from Pandit Rambhau Kundgolkar, in India known as Sawai Gandharv.

Sawai Gandharv, so reported Gangubai herself, taught her no more than four Ragas. But the training was very strict often practicing for hours monotonously single phrases. Her teacher followed the principle same how one should deal with money. Each note should be used as economically as possible. Gangubai remained always faithful to this rule during her 80 years long musician career. At the beginning she presented songs of light Indian classicals, Bhajans and Thumris. Later she focused completely to the Khayal, the modern singing style of North Indian classics. Khyal means “imagination”. This style developed from the Qawwali, from Sufi music with Muslim influence in the 17th century at the court of Mohammed Shah Rangile (1719-1748). The Khayal gives a musician free space for improvisation and possesses nevertheless a clear essential structure, either in the slow tempo, bada khyal or as chhota Khayl in a fast tempo.

Gangubai is well-known for she interpreted the Khayal in slow tempo, note for note which is the substantial characteristic of the Kirana Gharana, one of India’s music schools.

With her musical tools Gangubai could still give her last concert at the age of 93 on 12th March 2006. Although particularly from the loss of her daughter in 2004 she had to use a wheelchair and became in need of care for the last years of her impressive life.

On 17th May 2009, two months before their dying the “voice of the tradition” inaugurated the “Naryan Academy OF Hindustani Classical Music” in Hubli… and under the roof of the Hangal Music Foundation a national memorial award will honor artists with outstanding earnings/services for Indian Classical Music.

The Padmavibhushan Dr. Gangubai Hangal Memorial National Award will be assigned in 2010 to the outstanding singer Pandit Bhimsen Joshi (see right picture, 1st row). Bhimsen Joshi was introduced various times in IMC OnAir’s radio shows.

Khayal in Raag Bageshree (late night raga), quick tempo: Drut… see complete playlist.

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A – Raga CDs des Monats (03/2016): Dr. Gangubai Hangal – Voice of Tradition (Biographie)

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on March 27, 2016

“Voice of Tradition (Die Stimme der Tradition) – Dr. Gangubai Hangal” (eine biographische Sendung)

Dr. Gangubai Gangubai (5. März 1913 – 21. Juli 2009) ist eine Vertreterin der nordindischen Klassik. Diese Ausnahmesängerin kam uns in der Sendung “Frauen in der indischen Klassik” (Teil1) schon einmal zu Gehör, neben bedeutenden Vertreterinnen Nord- und Südindiens.

Die heutige Sendung am Ostersonntag nimmt den 103. Geburtstag (05/03/2013) von dem “Vater des Khayals“, wie man Gangubai Hangal auch nannte, zum Anlass, um dieser herausragenden Künstlerpersönlichkeit einen Abend zu widmen, auf Radio FRO (und weltweit als Webradio).

S e n d e t e r m i n e…

27. März 2016 – 23:00 Uhr CET (05:00 pm EST) @ Radio FRO (A)
(Premiere: 17. August 2010 – 21:00 Uhr CET @ TIDE Radio)
Sendeterminestreaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

In der geschichtlichen Bedeutung wir Gangubai als die einflussreichste Künstlerin gesehen, die Frauen zur Emanzipation im indischen Gesang verholfen hat. Neben vier Ehrendoktorwürden erhielt Gangubai 1971 – im Alter von 58 Jahren – den Padma Bhushan, und erst 2002 den Padma Vibhushan, der zweithöchste zivile Orden Indiens. 2002 war auch das Jahr, in dem bei Gangubai Knochenkrebs diagnostiziert wurde, den sie nach drei Jahren Behandlung erfolgreich überwinden konnte.

Gangubai wurde 1913 im südindischen Bundesstaat, in Karnataka, geboren. Gangubai stammt aus einer einfachen Familie, deren frühere Generationen den Gangamats angehörten, der Kaste einfacher Bootsleute, die auch Ackerbau betreiben. Ihre Herkunft aus diesem sozial-einfachen Millieu brachte Gangubai in ihrer frühen Karriere die Ablehnung der orthodoxen Brahmanen ein. Es schickte sich nicht für Frauen, sich mit Künsten den Lebensunterhalt zu verdienen. Obgleich ihr Vater, Shri Nadgir und ihr Ehemann, Shri Gururao Kaulgi ebenfalls der Kaste der Brahmanen angehörten, herrschte in ihrer Familie das Standesbewusstsein vor, dass Frauen eine Zierde eines Mannes seien: Angavashtra. In der Wortbedeutung heisst dies in etwa: ein zusätzliches Kleidungsstück, das feingeistigen Männern als Statussymbol schmückt.

Die Familie von Gangubai zog 1928 von Dharwad, ihrem Geburtsort zu dem 20 Kilometer süd-östlich gelegenen Hubli, damals wie heute ein kommerzielles Zentrum mit ca. 1.5 Millionen Einwohnern. Hubli blieb für Gangubai ihre Wahlheimat bis zu Ihrem Ableben am 21. Juli 2009.

Bildquelle: v.l.n.r.: with courtesy to indiasummary.com, Eric Parker (Flickr), Hinduonnet.com (1. Reihe);
Vikas Zutshi (Blogspot), Wikipedia.org , cbc.ca/daylife.com/Guardian.co.uk (2te Reihe)

Den künstlerischen Durchbruch erlangte Gangubai im Alter von 20 Jahren, mit einem Konzert im damaligen Bombay, 1933. Maßgeblichen Einfluss auf die gesanglichen Qualitäten von Gangubai waren neben ihrem musikalischen Talent die strenge Ausbildung, die sie 15 Jahre lang von Pandit Rambhau Kundgolkar erhielt, in Indien eher bekannt als Sawai Gandharv.

Sawai Gandharv, so Gangubai selbst, lehrte sie nicht mehr als vier Ragas. In ihrer strengen Ausbildung, die oft stundenlanges, monotones Üben einzelner Phrasierungen bedeutete, folgte ihre Lehrer dem Prinzip, wie man mit Geld umgehen sollte. Jede Note sollte so sparsam wie möglich eingesetzt werden. Dieser Regel blieb Gangubai in ihrer 80-jährigen Musikerkarriere stets treu. Während sie noch zu Beginn Lieder der leichten indischen Klassik, Bhajans und Thumris präsentierte, verschrieb sie sich später ganz dem Khayal, dem modernen Gesangsstil der nordindischen Klassik. Khyal, das bedeutet “Imagination”. Dieser Gesangsstil hat sich aus dem Qawwali, aus der Sufi-Musik mit muslimischer Prägung entwickelt, im 17ten Jahrundert am Hofe von Mohammed Shah Rangile (1719-1748). Der Khayal gibt dem Musiker viel Freiraum für Improvisation und besitzt dennoch eine klare Grundstruktur, entweder im langsamen Tempo, bada khyal oder als chhota Khayl, im schnellen Tempo.
Gangubai ist dafür bekannt, dass sie den Khayal in langsamen Tempo ausführte, Note für Note, dem wesentlichen Merkmal der Kirana Gharana, eine der indischen Musikschulen.

Mit diesem Rüstzeug konnte Gangubai noch im Alter von 93 Jahren, am 12. März 2006 ihr letztes Konzert geben, obgleich sie, besonders von dem Verlust ihrer Tochter in 2004, gezeichnet, im Rollstuhl saß und für die letzten Jahre ihres Lebens pflegebedürftig wurde.

Am 17. Mai 2009, zwei Monate vor ihrem Ableben, hatte die “Stimme der Tradition” in Hubli die “Naryan Academy of Hindustani Classical Music” eingeweiht… und unter dem Dach der Hangal Music Foundation wird ein Gedächtnispreis, der Padmavibhushan Dr Gangubai Hangal Memorial National Award vergeben, als nationaler Award zur Auszeichnung von Künstlern mit herausragenden Verdiensten um die indisch-klassische Musik. In 2010 wird er an den herausragenden Sänger Pandit Bhimsen Joshi  (s. linkes Bild, 2. Reihe) vergeben. Bhimsen Joshi wurde diverse Male in unserer Sendung vorgestellt.

Khayal in der Ragaform Bageshree (Spätnachtraga), schnelles Tempo Drut… s. vollständige Playlist.

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Quelle: v.l.n.r.: with courtesy thank’s to indiasummary.com, Eric Parker (Flickr), Hinduonnet.com (1st row);
Vikas Zutshi (Blogspot), Wikipedia.org , cbc.ca/daylife.com/Guardian.co.uk (2nd row)

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HAPPY HOLI to all our >17,960 FB group members of “INDIAN CLASSICAL”…

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on March 24, 2016

We wish to all >17,960 members of our uniquely FB group “Indian classical” a HAPPY HOLI Fest.
May your life be colourful with Joy, Fun, Happyness, Friendship, Love & MUSIC.

We wish to all >17,960 members of our uniquly FB group "Indian classical" a HAPPY HOLI Fest. May your life be colourful with Joy, Fun, Happyness, Friendship, Love & MUSIC.

Posted in Culture (news), IMC OnAir - News, Live around the globe, Medias, Religion (news) | Leave a Comment »

We remember the 241st birthday of composer Muthuswami Dikshitar

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on March 24, 2016

Saint Tyagaraja, Muthuswamy Dikshitar and Shyama Shastri -The Trinity of Carnatic music.

Saint Tyagaraja, Muthuswamy Dikshitar and Shyama Shastri – The Trinity of Carnatic music.

Muthuswami_DikshitarMuthuswami Dikshitar (March 24, 1775 – October 21, 1835) was a South Indian poet and composer and is one of the Musical Trinity of Carnatic music. His compositions, of which around 500 are commonly known, are noted for their contemplative nature and for capturing the essence of the raga forms through the vainika (veena) style that emphasises gamakas. They are typically in a slower speed (chowka kala). He is also known by his signature name of Guruguha which is also his mudra (can be found in every one of his songs). His compositions are widely sung and played in classical concerts of Carnatic music.

The musical trinity consists of Dikshitar, Tyagaraja (1767–1847), and Syama Sastri (1762–1827) although, unlike theTelugu compositions of the others, his compositions are predominantly in Sanskrit. He also had composed some of his Kritis in Manipravalam(admixture of Tamil and Sanskrit).

Muthuswami Dikshitar (March 24, 1775 – October 21, 1835)

Muthuswami Dikshitar (March 24, 1775 – October 21, 1835)

Muthuswami Dikshitar was born in Tiruvaruar (of Thiruvaruar district in what is now the state of Tamil Nadu) to a Tamil Iyer Brahmin couple Ramaswami Dikshitar(discoverer of Raaga Hamsadhwani) and Subbamma, as the eldest son. According to the account of Subbarama Dikshitar, Muttuswami Dikshitar was born in the manmatha year, in the month of Tamil Panguniunder the asterism Krittikaa. He was named after the temple deity, Muttukumaraswamy; legend has it that he was born after his parents prayed for a child in the Vaitheeswaran Temple. He had two younger brothers Baluswami, Chinnaswami and a sister Balambal.

In keeping with the tradition, Muthuswami learnt the Sanskrit language, Vedas, and other important religious texts. He obtained his preliminary musical education from his father.

While he was still in his teens, his father sent him on a pilgrimage with a wandering monk named Chidambaranatha Yogi to gain musical and philosophical knowledge. Over the course of this pilgrimage, he visited many places in North India and acquired a broad outlook that is reflected in many of his compositions. During their stay in Kashi (Varanasi), his guru Chidambaranatha Yogi, presented Dikshitar with a unique Veena and died shortly thereafter. The samādhi of Chidambaranatha Yogi can still be seen in Sri Chakra Lingeshwar temple at the Hanuman Ghat area in Varanasi.

His music

According to legend, his guru asked Muthuswami to visit Tiruttani (a temple town near Chennai). There, while he was immersed deep in meditation, an old man appeared and asked him to open his mouth. He dropped sugar candy into his mouth and disappeared. As he opened his mouth, he had a vision of the deity Muruga and Dikshitar burst forth into his first composition “Shri Nathadi Guruguho” in the raga Mayamalavagowla.

This song addressed the Lord (and/or the guru) in the first declension in Sanskrit. Dikshitar later composed kritis in all the eight declensions on the Lord. These are mostly with epithets glorifying the guru and have very few references to Lord Muruga or specifically to the deity in the saguna form, as at Thiruthani.

He then went on a pilgrimage visiting and composing at the temples at Kanchi, Tiruvannamalai, Chidambaram, Tirupathi andKalahasthi, before returning to Tiruvarur.

Muthuswami Dikshitar attained mastery over the Veena, and the influence of Veena playing is evident in his compositions, particularly the gamakas. In his kriti Balagopal, he introduces himself as a vaiNika gAyaka, “a player of the veeNA”. He experimented with the violin, and among his disciples, Vadivelu of the Thanjavur Quartet, and his brother Baluswami Dikshitar pioneered the use of violin in Carnatic music, now an integral part of most Carnatic ensembles.

Dikshitar’s prime

On his return to Tiruvaruar, he composed on every deity in the Tiruvarur temple complex including Tyagaraja (an amsham of Lord Shiva), the presiding deity, Nilotpalambal, his consort, and the Goddess Kamalambal an independent deity of high tantric significance in the same temple complex. This is when he composed the famous Kamalamba Navavarna cycle, filled with exemplary sahityas on the deities of the Sri Chakra which proved to be the showcase of his compositions. Thesenavavaranams were in all the eight declensions of the Sanskrit language and are sung as a highlight of Guruguha Jayanti celebrated every year. He continued to display his prowess by composing the Navagraha Kritis in praise of the nine planets. The sahitya of the songs reflect a profound knowledge of the Mantra and Jyotisha sastras. The Nilotpalamba Kritis is another classic set of compositions which revived dying ragas like Narayanagaula, Purvagaula, and Chayagaula

Disciples

Muthuswami Dikshitar was approached by four dance masters from Tanjavur: Sivanandam, Ponnayya, Chinnayya and Vadivelu. They expressed their desire to learn music from him and entreated him to accompany them to Tanjavur. There, Dikshitar imparted to them the 72 mela tradition handed down by Venkata Vaidyanatha Dikshita. The students showed their gratitude by composing a set of nine songs called Navaratna Mala glorifying their guru. These four disciples became what is known as the Tanjore Quartet and are revered as the prime composers of music for Bharatanatyam. Among his students, Ponnayya (Also called Ponnayya Pillai) and Chinnayya (Also called Chinnayya Pillai) also served as court artists of Sri Swati Tirunal of Tiruvananthapuram (Trivandram – Kerala). Sri Ponnayya served as the principal of Annamalai University as well and trained many students in music there.

At a young age, Dikshitar was also exposed to the music of the Western bands at Fort St. George. At a later stage, Dikshitar composed some forty songs to several (mostly western folk) tunes loosely adopted to ragas such as sankarabharaNa. This corpus is now known as nottusvara sAhitya (etym. nottusvara = “notes” swara). The influence of Celtic and Baroque styles in these compositions is quite evident (e.g., Sakthi Sahitha Ganapatim, to the tune of voulez-vous dancerVarashiva Balam). There is an erroneous belief that these were composed at the behest of CP Brown, the Collector of Cuddappah. This is not possible as the two could have never met. Muttuswami Diskhitar had left Madras by 1799. Brown came to Madras only in 1817, learnt Telugu in 1820 and moved over to Cuddappah the same year.

Samadhi

On Deepavali day, in 1835, Dikshithar performed puja as usual and asked his students to sing the song “Meenakshi Me Mudam” in the raga purvikalyani raga.

As his students sang the lines “Meena lochani pasa mochani” he raised his hands and saying “Sive Pahi” and left his mortal coil.

His Samadhi is at Ettayapuram ( Mahakavi Bharathi’s Birth Place), between Koilpatti (14 km) and Tuticorin.

Descendants

Muthuswami Dikshitar died on 21 October 1835. Dikshitar had a daughter but it was the descendants of his brother Baluswami who have preserved his musical legacy, and his compositions have been popularized due to the efforts of people like Subbarama Dikshitar and Ambi Dikshitar.

Baluswami Dikshitar, the sixth descendant in the line, a well-known vainika by his own rights, resided in Trichy and then moved to Chennai in 1957. He died in November 1985. He has two sons and two daughters. The eldest son, Muthuswamy, the seventh descendent in the line, retired as a top executive in the State Bank of India group of banks and then was the managing director and CEO of a private sector bank. The younger son runs his own small-scale industry near Madurai. Both daughters are married and well settled in Chennai.

The Raja Rajeswari, Vallabha Ganapathi, Sree Chakra, Banalingam, Saligramam and other idols, given to Shri Muthuswamy Dikshithar by his guru Chidambaranatha Yogi is in the family with the eldest son Muthuswamy along with the veena (with the upturned Yaali Mukha) with the Sanskrit inscription “Sri Ram” said to have been given to Dikshithar by Goddess Sarasvati, when he bathed in the river Ganges, as indication of his having attained Mantra Siddhi.

The grandson of Dikshitar’s only child – a daughter – was a Shri Venkatarama Iyer who took voluntary retirement in the 1940s from his position as Superintendent in the Secretariat of the then Madras State Govt to devote full time attention to his coconut plantation in what is now known as Seetamma Colony of Alwarpet in Madras (official new name is Chennai). The descendants of Shri Venkatarama Iyer are scattered all over the world, a feature if not typical, at least far from uncommon among Iyer families in the 21st century. His great grandson lives in Seetamma Colony with his mother and family, and other great grand children and their descendants live in Madras, Bangalore, Australia, the United Kingdom, Dubai, Doha, Canada and the United States.

Music compositions

His total compositions are about 450 to 500, most of which are very widely sung by musicians today in Carnatic music concerts. Most of his compositions are in Sanskrit and in the Krithi form, i.e., poetry set to music. Muthuswami Dikshitar traveled to many holy shrines throughout his life, and composed krithis on the deities and temples he visited. Dikshitar is considered to have composed on the widest range of deities for any composer.

Each of his compositions is unique and brilliantly crafted. The compositions are known for the depth and soulfulness of the melody — his visions of some of the ragas are still the final word on their structure. His Sanskrit lyrics are in praise of the temple deity, but Muthuswami introduces the Advaita thought seamlessly into his songs, resolving the inherent relationship between Advaita philosophy and polytheistic worship. His songs also contain much information about the history of the temple, and its background, thus preserving many customs followed in these old shrines.

Muttuswami also undertook the project of composing in all the 72 Melakartha ragas, (in his Asampurna Mela scheme) thereby providing a musical example for many rare and lost ragas. Also, he was the pioneer in composing samashti charanam krithis (songs in which the main stanza or pallavi is followed by only one stanza, unlike the conventional two). Dikshitar was a master of tala and is the only composer to have kritis in all the seven basic talas of the Carnatic scheme. Dikshitar shows his skill in Sanskrit by composing in all the eight declensions.

For richness of raga bhava, sublimity of their philosophic contents and for the grandeur of the sahitya, the songs of Dikshitar stand unsurpassed.

Muthuswami Dikshitar composed many kritis in groups. The List of compositions by Muthuswami Dikshitar describes those groups and compositions that belong to each group. Vatapi Ganapatim is regarded his best-known work.

Muthuswami Dikshitar composed one song (Shri Kantimatim Shankara Yuvatim Shri Guruguhajananim Vandeham.. Samashti Charanam Hrîmkâra Bîjâkâra vadanâm Hiranya manimaya Shôbhâ Sadanâm) on the Nellaiappar Temple goddess Kanthimathi Amman.This song is considered to be a rare song set in the rare raga.

He is also said to have composed a Rama Ashtapathi along with Upanishad Brahmendral at Kanchipuram. Unfortunately, this work has been lost.

(Source: 03/2016 – Wikipedia.org)

Compositions of Muthuswamy Dikshitars
sung by Dr. M. Balamuralikrishn

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special feature: From India to Europe… FestivalReport (part 1 and 2)

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on March 21, 2016

Part 1 and 2 of FestivalReport2007 is presented under the topic „Alternation of Generations ? – Music conferences & competitions of procreation“. In part 1 „IMC OnAir“ lights up the current music scene in India. Part 2 gives a view of the new generation competitions and international festival scene…

d a t e s   o f   b r o a d c a s t i n g

part 1 and 2Monday, 21st March 2016 – 04:00-05:58 pm CET @ TIDE Radio
broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

IMC OnAir presents the two hours special show „From India to Europe – Festival Report 2007“. The programme attaches to the Festival Report 2006. Here some interesting and worth knowing details were introduced to history and the development of Indian music festivals, the so called Sangita Sammelana-s.

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All broadcastings of the past you get access to by free PodCast for re-listening as MP3 independently from time and place (see Podcasting | News)…

The Sangita Sammelana-s enjoy internationally an increasing popularity. The origin hands back to the 18th century. Until today the Indian classical music of North and South India can retain it’s character as chamber music on the large stages in Kolkatta, New Dehli, Mumbai, Pune and Chennai.

music:
Raga Jog, Raga Mishra Mand, Raga Tilak Kamod (old form: Kambodi or Kamodi), Raga Sohini, Raga Hamsadwani, Raga Mishra Khamaj, Thumri, Raga Bageshri, Rag Bhairavi, Dhrupad, Pakhawaj Solo (Paran), Thumri (Light Indian Classical Music), Misra Pilu – Jiya Mora Na Lage

artists:
Begum Parveen Sultana (Vocals), Rajan & Sajan Mishra (vocal brothers), Taalyogi Suresh Talwalkar (Tabla), Dr. Kamala Shankar (Shankar Guitar) & Rajeev Janardan (Sitar), Subhra Guha (Vocals), Hariprasad Chaurasia (Bansuri / Flute), Kumar Bose (Tabla), Shahid Parvez (Sitar / Tabla / Vocals), Shashank Subramanium (Bansuri / Flute), Sandeep Das (Tabla), Suchismita & Debopriya Chatterjee (Flute Sisters), Sukhvinder Singh (Tabla), Patri Satish Kumar (Mridangam), Bahauddin Dagar (Dhrupad / Rudra Veena), Ravishankar Upadhyay (Pakhawaj), Ikram Khan (Sarangi), Shishirchandra Bhatt (Harmonium), Kaushiki Chakrabarty (Vocals)

festivals:
Savai Gandharva Music Festival (Pune), 13th ITC Sangeet Sammelan (Bangelore), MRI Music & Dance Festival 2005 / Annual Music & Drama Festival 2006 (Chennai), Saptak Festival (Ahmedabad, Gujarat), Darbar South Asian Music Festival (U.K.)

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special feature: From India to Europe… FestivalReport (Teil 1 und 2)

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on March 21, 2016

IMC präsentiert … From India to Europe… FestivalReport (Teil 1 u. 2)
– Generationenwechsel ? – Musikkonferenzen & Nachwuchswettbewerbe

IMC OnAir praesentiert das 2-stuendige special „From India to Europe – Festivalreport 2007“. Es schliesst an den Festivalreport 2006 an. Hier wurde bereits einiges Interessantes und Wissenswertes zur Geschichte und Entwickung der indischen Musikfestivals, der Sangita Sammelana-s vorgestellt.

Teil 1 u. 2 von FestivalReport 2007 stehen unter der Themenueberschrift “Generationenwechsel ? – Musikkonferenzen & Nachwuchswettbewerbe”. Im Teil 1 beleuchtet IMC OnAir die aktuelle Musikszene in Indien. Teil 2 gibt einen Blick auf die Nachwuchswettbewerbe und internationale Festivalszene.

S e n d e t e r m i n e …

Teil 1 und 2:  Montag, 21. März 2016 – 22:00-23:58 Uhr CET@ TIDE Radio (DE) 
broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

Alle zurueckliegenden Sendungen finden Sie auch als kostenlosen PodCast zum Nachhoeren (siehe Archiv).

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Die indischen Musikfestivals erfreuen sich international einer wachsenden Beliebtheit. Der Ursprung der Sangita Sammelana-s, reicht bis ins 18. Jahrhundert zurueck. Den Charakter als Kammermusik hat sich die indisch klassische Musik Nord- und Suedindiens auf den grossen Buehnen in Kolkatta, Neu-Dehli, Mumbai, Pune und Chennai bis heute bewahren koennen.

 

Musik:
Raga Jog, Raga Mishra Mand, Raga Tilak Kamod (old form: Kambodi or Kamodi), Raga Sohini, Raga Hamsadwani, Raga Mishra Khamaj, Thumri, Raga Bageshri, Rag Bhairavi, Dhrupad, Pakhawaj Solo (Paran), Thumri (Light Indian Classical Music), Misra Pilu – Jiya Mora Na Lage

Künstler:
Begum Parveen Sultana (Vocals), Rajan & Sajan Mishra (vocal brothers), Taalyogi Suresh Talwalkar (Tabla), Dr. Kamala Shankar (Shankar Guitar) & Rajeev Janardan (Sitar), Subhra Guha (Vocals), Hariprasad Chaurasia (Bansuri / Flute), Kumar Bose (Tabla), Shahid Parvez (Sitar / Tabla / Vocals), Shashank Subramanium (Bansuri / Flute), Sandeep Das (Tabla), Suchismita & Debopriya Chatterjee (Flute Sisters), Sukhvinder Singh (Tabla), Patri Satish Kumar (Mridangam), Bahauddin Dagar (Dhrupad / Rudra Veena), Ravishankar Upadhyay (Pakhawaj), Ikram Khan (Sarangi), Shishirchandra Bhatt (Harmonium), Kaushiki Chakrabarty (Vocals)

Festivals:
Savai Gandharva Music Festival (Pune), 13th ITC Sangeet Sammelan (Bangelore), MRI Music & Dance Festival 2005 / Annual Music & Drama Festival 2006 (Chennai), Saptak Festival (Ahmedabad, Gujarat), Darbar South Asian Music Festival (U.K.)

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The world celebrates 100th birthday of Shehnai legend Ustd. Bismillah Khan (21 March 1916 – 21 Aug 2006)

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on March 21, 2016

Bismillah Khan (Urdu: استاد بسم اللہ خان صاحب‎; 21 March 1916 – 21 August 2006), often referred to by the honorific title Ustad, was an Indian musician credited with popularizing the shehnai, a subcontinental wind instrument of the oboe class. While the shehnai had long held importance as a folk instrument played primarily during traditional ceremonies, Khan is credited with elevating its status and bringing it to the concert stage.

He was awarded India’s highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 2001, becoming the Third classical musician after M. S. Subbulakshmi and Ravi Shankar to be accorded this distinction.

Early life

Bismillah Khan was born on 21 March 1916 in Dumraon, Bihar in northern India. He was the second son of Bachaie Khan and Mitthan. His parents had initially named him Amiruddin, to rhyme with their first-born son Shamshuddin. However, his grandfather, Rasool Bux Khan, the shehnai master of the court of Bhojpur, exclaimed “Bismillah!” (“In the name of Allah!”) at the sight of him and thereafter he came to be known by this name.

His ancestors were court musicians and used to play in Naqqar khana in the princely states of Bhojpur, now in Bihar. His father was a shehnai player in the court of Maharaja Keshav Prasad Singh of Dumraon Estate, Bihar.

At the age of six, he moved to Varanasi. He received his training under his uncle, the late Ali Baksh ‘Vilayatu’, a shehnai player attached to Varanasi‘s Vishwanath Temple

Bihar Government has proposed setting up of a museum, a town hall-cum-library and installation of a life-size statue at his birthplce in Dumraon

Religious beliefs

Though a pious Shi’ite Muslim, he was also, like many Indian musicians, regardless of religion, a devotee of Saraswati, the Hindu Goddess of wisdom and arts and often played at Hindu temples, including the famous Vishwanath Temple in Varanasi, on the banks of the river Ganga He also performed for spiritual master Prem Rawat

Career

Bismillah Khan was perhaps single-handedly responsible for making the shehnai a famous classical instrument. He brought the shehnai to the center stage of Indian music with his concert in the Calcutta All India Music Conference in 1937. He was credited with having almost monopoly over the instrument as he and the shehnai are almost synonyms.

Khan is one of the finest musicians in post-independent Indian classical music and one of the best examples of Hindu-Muslim unity in India. He played the shehnai to audiences across the world. He was known to be so devoted to his art form that he referred to shehnai as his begum (wife in Urdu) after his wife died. On his death, as an honour, his shehnai was buried with him. He was known for his vision of spreading peace and love through music.

bismillah-khan-650_032116094426

Performances at Red Fort

Khan had the rare honor of performing at Delhi’s Red Fort on the eve of India’s Independence in 1947. He also performed raga Kafi from the Red Fort on the eve of India’s first Republic Day ceremony, on 26 January 1950. His recital had become a cultural part of India’s Independence Day celebrations, telecast on Doordarshan every year on 15 August. After the prime minister’s speech from Lal Qila (the Red Fort,) in Old Delhi, Doordarshan would broadcast a live performance by the shehnai maestro. This tradition dated from the days of Nehru.

Popular culture

Khan had a brief association with movies. He played the shehnai for Rajkumar‘s role of Appanna in the Kannada movie Sanaadi Appanna. He acted in Jalsaghar, a movie by Satyajit Ray and provided sound of shehnai in Goonj Uthi Shehnai (1959). Noted director Goutam Ghose directed Sange Meel Se Mulaqat, a documentary about the life of Khan.In the 1967 film The Graduate, there is a poster advertising “Bismillah Khan and the seven musicians” on a busy street of Berkeley, California.

Students

Khan seldom accepted students. He thought that if he would be able to share his knowledge it wouldn’t be useful as it would only give his students a little knowledge. Some of his followers include S. Ballesh as well as Khan’s own sons, Nazim Hussain and Nayyar Hussain.

Personal life

On 17 August 2006, Khan was taken ill and admitted to the Heritage Hospital, Varanasi for treatment. He died after four days on 21 August 2006 because of a cardiac arrest. He is survived by five daughters, three sons and a large number of grandchildren and great-grandchildren, and his adopted daughter Dr Soma Ghosh (famous Hindustani shastriya sangeet exponent).

The Government of India declared a day of national mourning on his death. His body along with a Shehnai was buried at Fatemain burial ground of old Varanasi under a neem tree with 21-gun salute from Indian Army.

Legacy

Sangeet Natak Akademi, New Delhi, instituted the ‘Ustad Bismillah Khan Yuva Puraskar’ in 2007, in his honour. It is given to young artists in the field of music, theatre and dance.

Awards and recognitions

Awards

Recognitions

Bismillah Khan had honorary doctorates from

Others include

Discography

Albums
  • Sanaadi Appanna – Played shehnai for Rajkumar‘s role in the movie.
  • Goonj Uthi Shehnai (1959) – shehnai recitals throughout the movie for Rajendra Kumar‘s role.
  • Maestro’s Choice (February 1994)
  • Megh Malhar, Vol. 4 (the other piece in the album is by Kishori Amonkar) (September 1994)
  • Live at the Queen Elizabeth Hall (September 2000)
  • Live in London, Vol. 2 (September 2000)
Contributing artist

Biographies

  • Bismillah Khan: the shehnai maestro, by Neeraja Poddar. Rupa & Co., 2004. ISBN 81-291-0351-6.
  • Monograph on Shehnai maestro Bismillah Khan, by Amar jyoti, Shivnath Jha, Alok Jain, Anjali Sinha. Pub. Neena Jha & Shivnath Jha, 2005. ISBN 8175256400.
(Source: 03/21/2016 – Wikipedia.org)

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