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Archive for April, 2013

A – Raga CDs of the Months (04/13): Dr. Gangubai Hangal – Voice of Tradition (biography)

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on April 27, 2013

!! New broadcasting dates in 2013 – New program calendar as download  or iCal  !!

“Voice of Tradition – Dr. Gangubai Hangal” (a biographic radio show)

Dr. Gangubai Gangubai (3/5/1913-7/21/2009) was a representative of North Indian Classics. This exceptional vocalist was “on air” in IMC OnAir’s radio show “Women in Indian Classics” (part 1) beside important female representatives of North and South India.

The 100th birthday (5th March) of Gangubai Hangal gives us some seriously reasons we like to dedicate the radio show in April @ Radio FRO to this outstanding artist who was called “Father of the Khayal” (mainly because of Gangubai’s androgynous voice).

dates of broadcasting…

28th April 2013 – 06:00 pm EST (11:00 pm CET) @ Radio FRO (A)
(premiere: 17th August 2010 – 09:00 pm CET @ TIDE Radio)
broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

In the historical meaning we can see Gangubai as the most influential artist who helped women to the emancipation in Indian vocals. Beside four honorary doctorate Gangubai received in 1971 – at the age of 58 years – the Padma Bhushan, and lately in 2002 the Padma Vibhushan, the second highest civilian order of India. 2002 was also the year in which Gangubai was diagnosed of bone cancer she successfully overcame after three years treatment.

Gangubai was born 1913 in Karnataka, a South Indian Federal State. Gangubai originates from a simple family, whose earlier generations belonged to the Gangamats, the caste of agricultural boat people. In her early career Gangubai’s origin from this social milleu she was refused by the orthodox Brahmans. It wasn’t modern that a woman earns her living costs with arts. Although Gangubai’s father, Shri Nadgir and her husband, Shri Gururao Kaulgi likewise belonged to the caste of Brahmans in her family prevailed a consciousness that a woman is ‘Angavashtra’ (literally meaning: an additional article of clothing, which decorates subtle men as status symbol).

In 1928 the family of Gangubai moved 20 kilometres southeast, from Dharwad as the place of her birth to Hubli that time like today a commercial centre with approx. 1,5 million inhabitants. Hubli remained for Gangubai as the adopted home till her dying on 21st July 2009.

Sources (from left to right): with courtesy thank’s to indiasummary.com, Vikas Zutshi (Blogspot), Wikipedia.org, (1st row);
Eric Parker (Flickr), Hinduonnet.com, cbc.ca/daylife.com/Guardian.co.uk (2nd row)

Gangubai had at the age of 20 years in 1933 with a concert in Bombay (Mumbai) her artistic break-through. Relevant influence on the vocal qualities beside her musical talent had the strict training, which Gangubai received for 15 years from Pandit Rambhau Kundgolkar, in India known as Sawai Gandharv.

Sawai Gandharv, so reported Gangubai herself, taught her no more than four Ragas. But the training was very strict often practicing for hours monotonously single phrases. Her teacher followed the principle same how one should deal with money. Each note should be used as economically as possible. Gangubai remained always faithful to this rule during her 80 years long musician career. At the beginning she presented songs of light Indian classicals, Bhajans and Thumris. Later she focused completely to the Khayal, the modern singing style of North Indian classics. Khyal means “imagination”. This style developed from the Qawwali, from Sufi music with Muslim influence in the 17th century at the court of Mohammed Shah Rangile (1719-1748). The Khayal gives a musician free space for improvisation and possesses nevertheless a clear essential structure, either in the slow tempo, bada khyal or as chhota Khayl in a fast tempo.

Gangubai is well-known for she interpreted the Khayal in slow tempo, note for note which is the substantial characteristic of the Kirana Gharana, one of India’s music schools.

With her musical tools Gangubai could still give her last concert at the age of 93 on 12th March 2006. Although particularly from the loss of her daughter in 2004 she had to use a wheelchair and became in need of care for the last years of her impressive life.

On 17th May 2009, two months before their dying the “voice of the tradition” inaugurated the “Naryan Academy OF Hindustani Classical Music” in Hubli… and under the roof of the Hangal Music Foundation a national memorial award will honor artists with outstanding earnings/services for Indian Classical Music.

The Padmavibhushan Dr. Gangubai Hangal Memorial National Award will be assigned in 2010 to the outstanding singer Pandit Bhimsen Joshi (see right picture, 1st row). Bhimsen Joshi was introduced various times in IMC OnAir’s radio shows.

Khayal in Raag Bageshree (late night raga), quick tempo: Drut… see complete playlist.

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A – Raga CDs des Monats (04/13): Dr. Gangubai Hangal – Voice of Tradition (Biographie)

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on April 27, 2013

!! Neue Sendetermine in 2013 – Programmkalender als Download o. iCal !!

“Voice of Tradition (Die Stimme der Tradition) – Dr. Gangubai Hangal” (eine biographische Sendung)

Dr. Gangubai Gangubai (5. März 1913 – 21. Juli 2009) ist eine Vertreterin der nordindischen Klassik. Diese Ausnahmesängerin kam uns in der Sendung “Frauen in der indischen Klassik” (Teil1) schon einmal zu Gehör, neben bedeutenden Vertreterinnen Nord- und Südindiens.

Den 100sten Geburtstag (5. März) des “Vaters des Khayals“, wie man Gangubai Hangal auch nannte, möchten wir zum Anlass nehmen, dieser herausragenden Künstlerpersönlichkeit einen Abend auf Radio FROzu widmen.

S e n d e t e r m i n e…

28. April 2013 – 23:00 Uhr CET (06:00 pm EST) @ Radio FRO (A)
(Premiere: 17. August 2010 – 21:00 Uhr CET @ TIDE Radio)
Sendeterminestreaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

In der geschichtlichen Bedeutung wir Gangubai als die einflussreichste Künstlerin gesehen, die Frauen zur Emanzipation im indischen Gesang verholfen hat. Neben vier Ehrendoktorwürden erhielt Gangubai 1971 – im Alter von 58 Jahren – den Padma Bhushan, und erst 2002 den Padma Vibhushan, der zweithöchste zivile Orden Indiens. 2002 war auch das Jahr, in dem bei Gangubai Knochenkrebs diagnostiziert wurde, den sie nach drei Jahren Behandlung erfolgreich überwinden konnte.

Gangubai wurde 1913 im südindischen Bundesstaat, in Karnataka, geboren. Gangubai stammt aus einer einfachen Familie, deren frühere Generationen den Gangamats angehörten, der Kaste einfacher Bootsleute, die auch Ackerbau betreiben. Ihre Herkunft aus diesem sozial-einfachen Millieu brachte Gangubai in ihrer frühen Karriere die Ablehnung der orthodoxen Brahmanen ein. Es schickte sich nicht für Frauen, sich mit Künsten den Lebensunterhalt zu verdienen. Obgleich ihr Vater, Shri Nadgir und ihr Ehemann, Shri Gururao Kaulgi ebenfalls der Kaste der Brahmanen angehörten, herrschte in ihrer Familie das Standesbewusstsein vor, dass Frauen eine Zierde eines Mannes seien: Angavashtra. In der Wortbedeutung heisst dies in etwa: ein zusätzliches Kleidungsstück, das feingeistigen Männern als Statussymbol schmückt.

Die Familie von Gangubai zog 1928 von Dharwad, ihrem Geburtsort zu dem 20 Kilometer süd-östlich gelegenen Hubli, damals wie heute ein kommerzielles Zentrum mit ca. 1.5 Millionen Einwohnern. Hubli blieb für Gangubai ihre Wahlheimat bis zu Ihrem Ableben am 21. Juli 2009.

Bildquelle: v.l.n.r.: with courtesy to indiasummary.com, Eric Parker (Flickr), Hinduonnet.com (1. Reihe);
Vikas Zutshi (Blogspot), Wikipedia.org , cbc.ca/daylife.com/Guardian.co.uk (2te Reihe)

Den künstlerischen Durchbruch erlangte Gangubai im Alter von 20 Jahren, mit einem Konzert im damaligen Bombay, 1933. Maßgeblichen Einfluss auf die gesanglichen Qualitäten von Gangubai waren neben ihrem musikalischen Talent die strenge Ausbildung, die sie 15 Jahre lang von Pandit Rambhau Kundgolkar erhielt, in Indien eher bekannt als Sawai Gandharv.

Sawai Gandharv, so Gangubai selbst, lehrte sie nicht mehr als vier Ragas. In ihrer strengen Ausbildung, die oft stundenlanges, monotones Üben einzelner Phrasierungen bedeutete, folgte ihre Lehrer dem Prinzip, wie man mit Geld umgehen sollte. Jede Note sollte so sparsam wie möglich eingesetzt werden. Dieser Regel blieb Gangubai in ihrer 80-jährigen Musikerkarriere stets treu. Während sie noch zu Beginn Lieder der leichten indischen Klassik, Bhajans und Thumris präsentierte, verschrieb sie sich später ganz dem Khayal, dem modernen Gesangsstil der nordindischen Klassik. Khyal, das bedeutet “Imagination”. Dieser Gesangsstil hat sich aus dem Qawwali, aus der Sufi-Musik mit muslimischer Prägung entwickelt, im 17ten Jahrundert am Hofe von Mohammed Shah Rangile (1719-1748). Der Khayal gibt dem Musiker viel Freiraum für Improvisation und besitzt dennoch eine klare Grundstruktur, entweder im langsamen Tempo, bada khyal oder als chhota Khayl, im schnellen Tempo.
Gangubai ist dafür bekannt, dass sie den Khayal in langsamen Tempo ausführte, Note für Note, dem wesentlichen Merkmal der Kirana Gharana, eine der indischen Musikschulen.

Mit diesem Rüstzeug konnte Gangubai noch im Alter von 93 Jahren, am 12. März 2006 ihr letztes Konzert geben, obgleich sie, besonders von dem Verlust ihrer Tochter in 2004, gezeichnet, im Rollstuhl saß und für die letzten Jahre ihres Lebens pflegebedürftig wurde.

Am 17. Mai 2009, zwei Monate vor ihrem Ableben, hatte die “Stimme der Tradition” in Hubli die “Naryan Academy of Hindustani Classical Music” eingeweiht… und unter dem Dach der Hangal Music Foundation wird ein Gedächtnispreis, der Padmavibhushan Dr Gangubai Hangal Memorial National Award vergeben, als nationaler Award zur Auszeichnung von Künstlern mit herausragenden Verdiensten um die indisch-klassische Musik. In 2010 wird er an den herausragenden Sänger Pandit Bhimsen Joshi  (s. linkes Bild, 2. Reihe) vergeben. Bhimsen Joshi wurde diverse Male in unserer Sendung vorgestellt.

Khayal in der Ragaform Bageshree (Spätnachtraga), schnelles Tempo Drut… s. vollständige Playlist.

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Quelle: v.l.n.r.: with courtesy thank’s to indiasummary.com, Eric Parker (Flickr), Hinduonnet.com (1st row);
Vikas Zutshi (Blogspot), Wikipedia.org , cbc.ca/daylife.com/Guardian.co.uk (2nd row)

Posted in DE (German), IMC OnAir - News | Leave a Comment »

Stamps from India with beautiful motives of Indian Classical music….

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on April 15, 2013

Indian-Stamps-withIndian-Classical-Music-Motives-2013-2

Posted in Culture (news), Economics (news), Uncategorized | Leave a Comment »

DE – Raga CDs of the Months (04/13): Sikh Sangeet – Gurbani Kirtan (The Major Raags in Sikh Music)

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on April 14, 2013

Sikh Sangeet – Gurbani Kirtan (sub title: The Main Ragas in Sikh Music)

Guru Nanak Dev ji (1469 - 1539) - Quelle: www.sikh-history.com

Guru Nanak Dev ji (1469 – 1539) – Quelle: http://www.sikh-history.com

 The Hindustani music from North India and South Indian (Carnatic) music is essentially the story of the Hinduism and Moghul emperors. The ancient scripts of Hinduism are the Vedas and can be dated back until around 1200 B.C. (e.g. Rigveda). The Moghuls were represented in Northern India from 1526 to 1858, among them Akbar as the most meaingful. Akbar reigned from 1556-1605.

The Indian classical music has contributed significantly to justify the Sikhism. As the founder of the Sikh doctrine is Guru Nanak Dev (15 April 1469 – September 22, 1539 in Talwandi (now in Pakistan)) as the first of ten (10) gurus. They all lived in the period from 1469 to 1708 and have dominated the Sikhism in various ways. Nanak Dev, the first Guru started as early in the 15th century to teach as an itinerant preacher the basic principles of Sikhism on his travels. With the findings from the various religions, who met him, from Hinduism, Jainism, Islam to Sufism Guru Nanak Dev put an independent doctrine of the unity of God, or rather of the divine..

dates of broadcasting

15th April 2013 – 04:00-06:00 p.m. EST (10:00 pm – 12:00 am CET) @ TIDE Radio (DE)
(premiere: 23rd March 2012 – 3-5:00 pm EST (21-23:00 CET) @ radio multicult.fm)

broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

The teaching of Sikhism is a monotheistic. Guru Dev Nanank did not speak of a God, not as a personification of the divine rather than the unknown, indeterminable, formless … omnipresent, in the spiritual sense.

In 1678 the individual writings were summed up by the 10th teacher Guru Gobind Singh, – on the basis of the Adi Granth – as the final version of Guru Granth Sahib. In the holy book of Sikhism there are a total of 1430 pages (Ang) and a plurality of Shabads (hymns). There are texts that are assigned to a specific Raga form (see table).
———————————————————————————–
31 Ragas in Guru Granth Sahib
———————————————————————————–
No. | Name of Raga | Order No. | Page Range | Page Count
——————————————————————————-
1 Asa 4 347 to 489 142
2 Bairari 13 719 to 721 2
3 Basant 25 1168 to 1197 29
4 Bhairon 24 1125 to 1168 43
5 Bihagara 7 537 to 557 20
6 Bilaval 16 795 to 859 64
7 Devagandhari 6 527 to 537 10
8 Dhanasari 10 660 to 696 36
9 Gauri 3 151 to 347 196
10 Gond 17 859 to 876 17
11 Gujari 5 489 to 527 38
12 Jaijaivanti 31 1352 to 1353 1
13 Jaitshree 11 696 to 711 15
14 Kalyan 29 1319 to 1327 8
15 Kahnra 28 1294 to 1319 25
16 Kedara 23 1118 to 1125 7
17 Maajh 2 94 to 151 57
18 Malhar 27 1254 to 1294 40
19 Mali Gaura 20 984 to 989 5
20 Maru 21 989 to 1107 118
21 Nat Narayan 19 975 to 984 9
22 Prabhati 30 1327 to 1352 25
23 Ramkali 18 876 to 975 99
24 Sarang 26 1197 to 1254 57
25 Shree 1 14 to 94 80
26 Sorath 9 595 to 660 65
27 Suhi 15 728 to 795 67
28 Tilang 14 721 to 728 7
29 Todi 12 711 to 719 8
30 Tukhari 22 1107 to 1118 11
31 Vadahans 8 557 to 595 38
—————————————————————————–

The poetry of the first 10 teachers were also complemented by the Indian wisdoms of Kabir (1440-1518) or of the poet and saint Namdev (1270-1350) and others.

Sikh pilgrim at the Golden Temple (Harmandir Sahib) in Amritsar, India

Sikh pilgrim at the Golden Temple (Harmandir Sahib) in Amritsar, India

The verses of the Guru Granth Sahib are written in their own language, in Gurmukhi. It is derived from Punjabi and Hindi and had been widespread in the Middle Ages in North India. The Gurmuki script has its origin in a variety of languages. Today it is the official written language of the Indian federal state Punjab. Gurmuki was standardized by the second Guru Angad Dev. The vocal Gurmukhi language consists of the Gurbani words. The text of the Guru Granth Sahib is therefore referred to as Gurbanigurbani. Gurbani is literally “the spoken word of the Master, the Guru,” which gives the student and pupil’s full attention. The Sanskrit word “guru” is more than just a teacher. For a Sikh it means teacher + spiritual leader at the same time.
Unlike in Hinduism in which one must be born, everyone can commit to Sikhism. Here we come across the idea of reincarnation. The caste system is rejected as in the Indian Constitution. Worldwide, the numbers of Sikhs are estimated to something less than 30 million. The majority live in northern India, in Punjab, the border area between India and Pakistan. After the Great Migration has begun in the 19th century, the larger Sikh diasporas developed in Canada, East Africa, the Middle East, England, Australia and New Zealand.

When you enter a Sikh temple, the Guru Granth Sahib Tront in the center. Since 1708 it is the official book of Sikhism, in unchanged form. After entering the temple, a Sikh bows symbolically n front of the holy book to honor the teachers (gurus). The Sikh religious services and celebrations are open to everyone, regardless of its origin or religion.

About Guru Nanak Dev…

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DE – Raga CDs des Monats (04/13): Sikh Sangeet – Gurbani Kirtan (Die Hauptragas in der Sikhmusik)

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on April 14, 2013

Sikh Sangeet – Gurbani Kirtan (Hauptragas in der Sikhmusik)

Guru Nanak Dev ji (1469 - 1539) - Quelle: www.sikh-history.com

Guru Nanak Dev ji (1469 – 1539) – Quelle: http://www.sikh-history.com

Die Hindustani-Musik aus Nordindien und karnatische Musik Südindiens sind im Wesentlichen von der Geschichte des

Hinduismus und dem Moghulreich geprägt. Die antiken Skripte des Hinduismus sind die Veden und können bis ca. 1200 v. Christi Geburt (Rigveda) zurückdatiert werden. Die Moghulherrscher waren in Nordindien von 1526 bis 1858 präsent, unter ihnen Akbar als der Bedeutendeste. Akbar regierte von 1556-1605. Die indische Klassik hat maßgeblich dazu beigetragen, den Sikhismus zu begründen.

Als der Begründer der Sikh-Lehre wird Guru Nanak Dev (15. April 1469 – 22. September 1539 in Talwandi (im heutigen Pakistan)) gesehen, der erste von zehn (10) Gurus. Sie alle lebten in dem Zeitraum von 1469 bis 1708 und haben den Sikhismus auf unterschiedlichste Weise geprägt. Nanak Dev begann als der erste Guru bereits im 15. Jahrhundert die Grundzüge des Sikhismus auf seinen Reisen als Wanderprediger zu lehren. Mit den Erkenntnissen aus den verschiedenen Religionen, die ihm begegneten, vom Hindusimus, Jainismus, Islamismus bis zum Sufismus formulierte Guru Nanak Dev eine eigenständige Lehre über die Einheit Gottes, oder viel mehr des Göttlichen.

Sendetermine …

15. April 2013 – 22:00-24:00 Uhr CET (04:00-06:00 p.m. EST) @ TIDE Radio (DE)
(Premiere: 23.3.2012 – 21-23:00 Uhr CET (3-5:00 pm EST) @ radio multicult.fm)
broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

Die Lehre des Sikhismus ist eine Monotheistische. Guru Nanank Dev sprach aber nicht von einem Gott, nicht in Form einer Personifizierung, vielmehr von dem Göttlichen, als dem Unbekannten, Unbestimmbaren, Formlosen… allgegegnwärtig, im spirituellen Sinne.

Im Jahre 1678 fasste der 10. Lehrer Guru Gobind Singh die einzelnen Schriften – auf der Basis des Adi granth – zu der abschliessenden Fassung des Guru Granth Sahib zusammen.  In dem heiligen Buch des Sikhismus, finden sich auf insgesamt 1430 Seiten (Angs) eine Vielzahl von Shabads (Hymnen). Es sind Texte, die einer bestimmten Ragaform zugeordnet werden (s. Tabelle).
——————————————————————————-
Ragas imGuru Granth Sahib
——————————————————————————-
No.   |  Name of Raga  Order No.Page Range  |  Page Count
——————————————————————————-
1    Asa    4    347 to 489    142
2    Bairari    13    719 to 721    2
3    Basant    25    1168 to 1197    29
4    Bhairon    24    1125 to 1168    43
5    Bihagara    7    537 to 557    20
6    Bilaval    16    795 to 859    64
7    Devagandhari    6    527 to 537    10
8    Dhanasari    10    660 to 696    36
9    Gauri    3    151 to 347    196
10    Gond    17    859 to 876    17
11    Gujari    5    489 to 527    38
12    Jaijaivanti    31    1352 to 1353    1
13    Jaitshree    11    696 to 711    15
14    Kalyan    29    1319 to 1327    8
15    Kahnra    28    1294 to 1319    25
16    Kedara    23    1118 to 1125    7
17    Maajh    2    94 to 151    57
18    Malhar    27    1254 to 1294    40
19    Mali Gaura    20    984 to 989    5
20    Maru    21    989 to 1107    118
21    Nat Narayan    19    975 to 984    9
22    Prabhati    30    1327 to 1352    25
23    Ramkali    18    876 to 975    99
24    Sarang    26    1197 to 1254    57
25    Shree    1    14 to 94    80
26    Sorath    9    595 to 660    65
27    Suhi    15    728 to 795    67
28    Tilang    14    721 to 728    7
29    Todi    12    711 to 719    8
30    Tukhari    22    1107 to 1118    11
31    Vadahans    8    557 to 595    38
————————————————————————-

Die Texte der ersten 10 Lehrer wurden zudem ergänzt um Weisheiten des indischen Mysthikers Kabir (1440-1518) oder des Poeten und Heiligen Namdev (1270-1350) und anderer.

Sikh pilgrim at the Golden Temple (Harmandir Sahib) in Amritsar, India

Sikh pilgrim at the Golden Temple (Harmandir Sahib) in Amritsar, India

Die Verse des Guru Granth Sahib sind in einer eigenen Sprache verfasst, in Gurmukhi. Sie leitet sich aus Punjabi und Hindi ab und war im Mittelalter Nordindiens weit verbreitet. Die Gurkmuki-Schrift hat ihren Urpsrung in einer Vielzahl von Sprachen. Heute ist sie die offizielle Schriftsprache des indischen Bun

desstaates Punjab. Standardisiert wurde Gurmuki von dem zweiten Guru Angad Dev. Die Vokalsprache Gurmukhi besteht aus den Gurbani-Wörtnern. Den Text des Guru Granth Sahib bezeichnet man daher als Gurbanigurbani.  Gurbani ist sinngemäß “das gesprochene Wort des Meisters, des Gurus”, dem der Studierende, der Schüler seine ganze Aufmerksamkeit schenkt. Der Sanskrit-Begriff “Guru” ist mehr als nur Lehrer. Für einen Sikh bedeutet es Lehrer + spiritueller Führer zugleich.

Anders als im Hinduismus, in den man hineingeboren werden muss, kann sich jeder zum Sikhismus bekennen. Hier treffen wir auch auf die Vorstellung von Reinkarnation. Das Kastensystem wird wie in der indischen Verfassung abgelehnt. Weltweit werden die Zahl der Sikhs auf etwas weniger als 30 Millionen geschätzt. Die Mehrzahl lebt im Norden Indiens, im Punjab, dem Grenzgebiet zwischen Indien und Pakistan. Nachdem die Völkerwanderung im 19. Jahrhundert eingesetzt hat, entstanden in Kanada, Ost-Afrika, im mittleren Osten, in England, Australien und Neuseeland die größeren Diasporas.

Betritt man einen Sikh-Tempel, tront das Guru Granth Sahib im Zentrum. Seit 1708 ist es das offizielle Buch des Sikhismus, in unveränderter Form. Nach Betreten des Tempels verbeugt sich ein Sikh zur Ehrerbietung der Lehrer symbolisch vor dem Heiligen Buch. Die Gottesdienste und Sikh-Feste können von jedermann besucht werden, ungeachtet seiner Herkunft oder Religion.

Über Guru nanak Dev….

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A – Raga CDs of the months (04/13): NYASA – the Silence in Ragas.

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on April 13, 2013

!! 160 Broadcasting Dates in 2013 – IMC Programme Calendar as PDF Download  or iCal  !!

For the Ragas of our time there exist a variety of combinations. The ascending and descending scales (arohana and avaroha) can exist of 5, 6 or 7 main notes (oudava, shadava or sampoorna).

In the Natya Sastra , which is the fundamental work by the sage Bharata Muni with more than 6000 Sutras defining the notation of the Raga modi which can be understood as the origin of the melodic structure of modern Ragas, the so called Jati-s. In all India the Jatis had been popular particularly for the singing.

The Natya Sastra classified the Jati-s in 18 groups, seven (7) as pure forms, from which 146 modified ragas can be defined… and eleven (11) hybrid forms with a multiplicity of variations.

dates of broadcasting…

14th April 2013 – 05:00 pm EST (11:00 pm CET) @ Radio FRO (A)
(premiere: 15th June 2010 – 09:00 pm CET @ Tide Radio)
broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

IMC-CD-Cover-Nyasa-Silence-in-Rags-062010-250-1Almost at the same time the musical scripture “Dattilam” written by the (Muni) Dattila followed the Natya Sastra. It is dates approximately between the 4th century BC and 2nd century AC. The Dattilam described the Jati-s more exactly each with ten (10) characters from those the melodic structure of the contemporary ragas of North Indian Classics had developed.

For the ancient ragas the weighting of a note (swara) was described with the term Amsa. Amsa is in its function multivarious. Among others it is the note, with which the complete character of a raga is described, e.g. in form of a stabalizing element as Nyasa Swara.

In the arrangement of a raga which is subjected to a strict set of rules each phrasing has a starting point: with Graha the position of a note is described, more exactly: the note, with which a Raga exposition must be begin. Graha is the initial note and Nyasa the conclusion. The instrumentalist or vocalist returns at the end of a melodic phrasing to Nyasa as “melodic center” and “quiescent pole”.

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A – Raga CDs des Monats (04/13): Nyasa – die Stille der Ragas.

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on April 13, 2013

!! 160 Broadcasting Dates in 2013 – IMC Programme Calendar as PDF Download  or iCal  !!

Für die Ragas unserer Zeit gibt es unterschiedlichste Kombinationen von aufsteigenden und absteigenden Skalen: arohana und avaroha. Sie können aus 5, 6 oder 7 Hauptnoten (oudava, shadava o. sampoorna) bestehen.

Im Natya-Sastra, dem Grundlagenwerk des Weisen Bharata Muni mit mehr als 6000 Sutren wurde eine Notation für die Ragamodi definiert, die man als Ursprung der melodie-ähnlichen Struktur moderner Ragas verstehen kann, die s.g. Jati-s. Sie waren in ganz Indien besonders für den Gesang beliebt.

Das Natya-Sastra fasste die Jati-s in 18 Gruppen, sieben (7) reine Formen, aus denen man 146 modifzierte Ragas gestalten konnte… und elf (11) Hybridformen mit einer Vielzahl von Variationen.

Sendetermine…

14. April 2013 – 23:00 Uhr @ Radio FRO (A)
(Premiere: 15. Juni 2010 – 21:00 Uhr @ Tide Radio)
broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

IMC-CD-Cover-Nyasa-Silence-in-Rags-062010-250-1Dem Natya-Sastra folgte nahezu zeitgleich die musikalische Schrift Dattilam des Weisen Muni Dattila. Die Entstehung des Dattilams datiert man ungefähr auf das 4. vor bis 2. Jahrhundert nach Christi Geburt. Im Dattilam wurden die Jati-s mit jeweils zehn (10) Charakteren genauer beschrieben, aus denen sich die melodische Struktur der zeitgenössischen Ragas der nordindischen Klassik entwickelte.

Die Gewichtung einer Note, einer Swara, wurde für die antiken Ragas mit dem Begriff Amsa umschrieben. Amsa ist in seiner Funktion vielfältig, u.a. ist es die Note, mit der der gesamtheitliche Charakter eines Ragas beschrieben wird, z.B. in Form eines Ruhepols, als Nyasa Swara.

In der Ausgestaltung eines Ragas, die einem strengen Regelwerk unterworfen ist, hat jede Phrasierung einen Ausgangpunkt: Graha ist die Anfangsnote und Nyasa der Abschluss. Mit Graha wird die Position einer Note beschrieben, genauer: die Note, mit der eine Ragaexposition begonnen werden muss. Der Instrumentalist oder Sänger kehrt am Ende einer melodischen Phrasierung zu Nyasa als “melodisches Zentrum” und “Ruhepol” zurück.

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CH – Raga CDs des Monats (04/12): CHANDRA – Mondragas.

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on April 7, 2013

In einer Vielzahl westlichernd, östleicher und asiatischer Kulturen sprechen die Menschen dem Mond mystische Kräfte zu. Der Erdtrabant umkreist in einem gemittelten Abstand von 384.401 km die Erde von Vollmond zu Vollmond in 29,53 Tagen. Durch die Gravitation des Mondes und auch die der Sonne erklären sich die Gezeiten von Ebbe und Flut.

Veden, Hinduismus…

Bereits in den Veden (Sanskrit: वेद, véda, “Wissen”), also der vorchristlichen Zeit Indiens, wurde der Mond zu dem Tages-/ Wochenkalender in Bezug gesetzt. In den Veden war der Mond die Gottheit Soma, der Saft aller Pflanzen. Der Mond ist also Herrscher über Pflanzen und Vegetation. Soma bestimmt auch über den Montag, wie es sich in den Nava Grahas, den sieben (7) Hauptplaneten + zwei (2) Schattenplaneten (ab- u. zunehmender Mond) wiederspiegelt (s.u. ‚Indische Astrologie’).

Im hinduistischen Verständnis ist der Mond ein Planet (Graha) und gleichsam eine Gottheit: Chandra. – Chandra, das heisst “scheinend”. Dieses Wort finden wir für Mond in der alten Gelehrtensprache Sanskrit, in Hindu und Landessprachen verschiedener indischen Bundesstaaten. (Hinweis: Neben Chandra sind weitere Namen: “Herr der Nacht” = Rajanipati; “Derjenige, der die Nacht erhellt” = Kshuparaka oder “Der strahlend-leuchtende Tropfen” = Indu (s.u. Melakarta-System).)

Dem Mond werden in der hinduistischen Mythologie gute und gleichsam negative Eigenschaften zugesprochen. Die Königin des Mondes kann gleichsam der Dämon des Mondes sein.

Source: metmuseum.org

Chandra (Quelle: metmuseum.org)

Chandra, der Mond, wird in bildlichen Darstellungen und Skulpturen als ein schöner, vierarmiger Jüngling dargestellt. Chandra fährt auf einem Streitwaagen nächtlich über dem Himmel, gezogen von 10 weissen Pferden oder einer Antilope. (Ergänz.: Auf einigen Abbildungen wird Chandra auch mit einem Hasen abgebildet. Chandra ist der Schutzpatron aller Hasen.)

Indische Astrologie… Neun Planeten (Nava Graha-s)…

Die vedische Astrologie, die antike Astrologie Indiens deutete den Mond in Bezug auf den menschlichen Körper als Gehirn und Verstand. Der Mond ist Emotion, Empfindungsfähigkeit, Sanftheit, Vorstellungskraft, Königin und Mutter.

Das Jahr ist im Panchangam, dem Almanach zur hinduistischen Astrologie in 12 Monate eingeteilt. Die Mondbewegung (Tithi) spielt eine entscheidende Rolle (Mondkalender “Chaitra“). Der Monat des Mondes besteht aus zwei Hälften: der ersten Vollmondphase und zweiten Neumondphase. Der zunehmende Mond, hell scheinend wird als segensreich, der abnehmende, verdeckte Mond als bösartig, schädlich angesehen.

Neben dem Mond als einer der sieben (7) Hauptplaneten existieren zwei Gottheiten für den zunehmenden und abnehmenden Mond, s.g. Schattenplaneten: Rahu symbolisiert den zunehmenden und Ketu den abnehmend Mond. Rahu & Ketu sind Dämonen von großer Macht (s. IMC-Sendung: “Ragas fuer Neun Planeten (Nava Graha Kriti-s)“).

Jahreszeiten…

Der Zeitzyklus der indischen Ragas oder der saisonale Bezug haben direkten Einfluß auf das menschliche Bewusstsein und sein Stimmungsempfinden. In der indischen Musik definiert man sechs (6) saisonale Bezüge, die Rithu-s.

Source: www.namaste.it

Chakra Svadhisthana (Quelle: http://www.namaste.it)

Jede Rithu bezieht sich auf eine Zeitperiode, die mit einem besonderen Ereignis verknüpft ist. Jede der sechs (6) Rithu-s dauert zwei (2) Sonnenmonate.

Der genauen Anfang der Ritus berechnet sich jeweils aus 30 Grad Sonnenbewegung mit Referenzpunkt der Tag- und Nachtgleiche (equinox) bzw. der Sommer- und Wintersonnwenden (summer and winter solstice) – in Relation zur Erdrotation und -neigung.

Den Planeten Mond und Sonne wird die Saison Varsha zugeordnet. Wenn Sonne & Mond im Hause der Sternkreiszeichen Zwillinge und Krebs stehen, ist in Indien Regenzeit (Monsoon: 20. Mai – 20. Juli). Im hinduistischen Mondkalender Chaitra sind dies Yeshta und Ashaadha.

Der erste Tag “Mahalaya” des Durga-Festes, dem bedeutendsten Fest der Hindus, fällt auf den Neumondtag und feiert die Rückkehr der verheirateten Tochter Durga zu ihrem Vater Himalaya (s. IMC-Sendung: “Mutter Durga – Ma Durga“).

Auch die Zahl der Körper-, Geist- und Seele-Chakren sind zwölf. Die sechs niederen Chakren werden durch die sechs Jahreszeiten aktiviert. Durch das helle Mondlicht, in der Saison Sarad Rithu, wird das Chakra Manipura aktiviert. Manipura ist das dritte primäre Chakra hinter dem Solarpelxus, auch als “Sitz der Edelsteine” genannt. Auch das zweite Chakra, Svadhishthana steht in Beziehung mit dem Element Wasser und dem Mond, und wird durch Mond- und Monsoonragas wie dem Raga Megh aktiviert (s. IMC-Sendung: “Ragas im indischen Monsoon (Rainy Season Ragas)“).

Sendetermine…
8. April 2013 – 22:00 Uhr MESZ (04:00 pm EST) @ Radio RaSA (CH)
(Erstausstrahlung: 19ter Oktober 2010 – 21:00 Uhr @ Tide Radio)

broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

Ragas der nordindischen Klassik (Hindustani)…

Das Stimmungsbild des Mondes spiegelt sich in dem Spätnachtraga Chandrakosh (o. Chandrakauns) wieder. Kauns kennzeichnet diesen Mondraga in der auf- und absteigenden Skala als 5-Ton-Raga (pentatonisch). Chandrakauns war schon in seiner alten Form, im 19. Jahrhundert ein beliebter Raga, um wiederholende Melodieformen, die Lahara-s (o. naghma-s) auszudrücken. Auch für Tablasolos wurde dieser Mondraga als Begleitform gewählt o. für Aufführungen im nordindischen Tanz Kathak.

..

alte (links) und neue (rechts) Notenskala von Raga Chandrakauns (Quelle: chandrakantha.com)

Die Sarodlegende Ali Akbar Khan verstarb im Alter von 87 Jahren, am 18. Juni 2009. Dieser Ausnahmemusiker der nordindischen Klassik kreierte den Mondraga Chandranandan. Er kann zu den herausragenden Kompositionen von Ali Akbar Khan gezählt werden. Chandranandan ist eine Kreuzung aus vier (4) traditionellen Ragas: Malkoush, Chandrakauns, Nandakoush u. Kaushi Kanada. (s.a. IMC-Sendung: “Tradition & Moderne – Eine Hommage an Ali Akbar Khan“.)

Eine weitere Variante eines Mondragas ist ChandraDhwani. Ein Zwitter aus dem Mondraga Chandrakauns und Nachtraga Kaushik Dhwani. Beides sind 5-Ton-Ragas (pentatonisch). Bei Kaushik Dhwani entfallen die 2. Stufe Re (Rishabh) und 5. Stufe Pa (Pancham). Alle Noten werden “suddha”, als natürlich gespielt.

Südindische Klassik (Carnatic). Ragams im Melakarta-System…

Wie in der indischen Astrologie, existieren auch im Klassifizierungssystem der südindischen Klassik, im s.g. Melakartasystem, 12 Gruppen (Chakren) mit je sechs Ragams (insgesamt 72 Ragams im s.g. Melakarta-System), der südindischen Ragaform. Die erste Gruppe ist Indu, neben Chandra ein zweiter Name für Mond. Es gibt nur einen Mond, also ist Indu die erste Gruppe, das erste Chakra im Melakartasystem. Die Farbe Rot ist diesem Chakra zugeordnet. Das Singen dieser Mondragas macht das Herz leicht. Wir empfinden die Sanftheit und wohltuende Wirkung des Vollmonds.

Folgende Übersicht zeigt alles Ragams (1.-6. Melakarta Ragam: Kanakangi, Ratnangi, Ganamurti, Vanaspati, Manavati; u. Tanarupi) des 1. Chakra Indu (Quelle: allcarnaticmusic.com)

Naturelemente…

Souce: www.t-fleece.com

geschliffener Mondstein (Quelle: http://www.t-fleece.com)

Das Element des Mondes ist Wasser (s.o. Varsha Ritu). Der Mond regelt die Regenmonate und das Wasser für die Ernten, während Merkur die Zeitdauer des Wachstums und der Fruchtreife bestimmt… und Jupiter über die frostigen Monate herrscht, in denen das Laub fällt und die kalte Jahrezeit beginnt. Chandra’s Einfluß findet sich auch in der Nahrung wieder. Der Mond bestimmt die Struktur des Reises.

In dem farblichen Stimmung wird der Mond als weiss, metallig-silbern verstanden. In Indien wird er durch Perlen und den Mondstein repräsentiert. Er gehört zur Gruppe der Feldspate. Der Mondstein ist eine Mineral-Varietät des Orthoklas. Als echten Schmuckstein findet man ihn als Cabochon jedoch sehr selten – fast transparent mit zart-bläulichem Glanze. Das typische Herkunftslgebiet des Mondsteins liegt in direkter Nachbarschaft zu Indien, auf Sri Lanka.

———————————

Chand phir nikla
(Film: Paying Guest – Sängerin: Late Mangeshkar – Komponist: S.D. Burman)

The Moon has came out again but you still not came
My heart is burning. What can I do now?
This night is telling me that those good old days are gone.
My heart is telling me that you are no longer mine.
Even then, I am still waiting with my eyes wide open
(with the hope that someday you will still come back to meet me).
I do not know what to do since thoughts of you come to my mind.
The smoke is coming out of fire burning inside my heart.
I feel choked now, please come back to me.
The shadow from spring has burnt my whole body.
I do not know what to do since thoughts of you come to my mind.

chaand phir nikla magar tum na aaye
jala phir mera dil karoon kya main haay
chaand phir nikla
yeh raat kehti hai woh din gaye tere
yeh jaanta hai dil ke tum nahin mere
khadi hoon main phir bhi nigahein bichaye
main kya karoon haay ke tum yaad aaye
chaand phir nikla magar tum na aaye
jala phir mera dil karoon kya main haay
chaand phir nikla
sulagte seene se dhuaan sa uthtaa hain
lo ab chale aao ke dam ghuthta hain
jala gayi tan ko baharon ke saaye
main kya karoon haay ke tum yaad aaye
chaand phir nikla magar tum na aaye
jala phir mera dil karoon kya main haay
chaand phir nikla

(Source: http://www.hindilyrics.net)

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CH – Raga CDs of the Months (04/13): CHANDRA – Moon Ragas.

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on April 7, 2013

Humans in a multiplicity of cultures (Western, Eastern and Asian) award the moon mystic strength. The satellite circles the earth in 29,53 days from full moon to full moon at an averaged distance of 384.401 km. The gravitation of the moon and sun explain the tides ( ebb and flood).

Vedas, Hinduism…

Source: metmuseum.org

Chandra (Source: metmuseum.org)

Already in the Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, véda, “knowledge”), in the pre-Christian time of India the moon was referenced to the daily and week calendar. In the Vedas the moon was the divinity Soma, the sap. The moon is thus ruler over all plants and the vegetation. Also Soma determines itself over ‘Monday,’ like it is reflected in the Nava Graha-s (nine planets) : seven (7) main planets + two (2) shaddow planets (decreasing and increasing moon), see below ‚Indian Astrology’.

In the Hindu self understanding the moon is a planet (Graha) and a divinity as well: Chandra. Chandra means “shining”. We find this word for moon in the old scholar language Sanskrit, in Hindu and national languages of different Indian Federal States (Ref.: Beside Chandra exist further names: “master of the night” = Rajanipati; “That, who illuminates the night” = Kshuparaka or “the bright shining drop” = Indu (see below Melakarta system).)

In Hindu mythology the moon personifies same positive as negative characteristics. The Queen of Moon can be as well the Demon of the Moon.

Chandra, the moon, is represented in figurative paintings and sculptures as a beautiful four-armed young man. Chandra drives a chariot nightly over the sky, pulled by 10 white horses or an antelope. (Note: In some exposures Chandra is illustrated also with a hare as Chandra is the patron saint of all hares.)

Indian Astrology… Nine Planets (Nava Graha-s)…

The vedic Astrology, the ancient Astrology of India interpreted the moon regarding the human body as brain and intellect. The moon is emotion, abilty of perception, gentleness, imaginative power, queen and mother.

In the Panchangam, the almanac of Hindu Astrology the year is divided into 12 months. The moon movement (Tithi) plays a crucial role (moon calendar “Chaitra “). The month of the moon consists of two halves: the first full moon phase and second new moon phase. The brightly waxing moon is regarded as benedictional and the covered, waning moon is malicious, harmful.

Beside the moon as one of the seven (7) main planets exist two divinities for the waxing and waning moon, so called shadow planets: Rahu symbolizes the waxing and Ketu the waning moon. Rahu & Ketu are demons of large power (see IMC radio show: “Ragas for Nine Planets (Nava Graha-s)“).

6 Seasons…

The time cycle of Indian Ragas or reference to seasons (e.g. spring ragas, monsoon ragas) have direct influence on the human consciousness and its emotional sensation. In Indian classical music one defines six (6) seasonal references, the so called rithu-s. Every rithu refers to one time period which is linked with a special event. Everyone of the six (6) rithu – takes two (2) sun months.

Chakra Svadhisthana (Source: www.namaste.it)

Chakra Svadhisthana (Source: http://www.namaste.it)

The exact beginning of a rithu is calculated from 30 degrees of sun movement with reference point to the equinoxes (day and night) and the summer and winter solstices – in relation to the earth rotation and inclination of the earth.

The season Varsha is assigned to the planet moon and sun. If sun & moon are located in the zodiac signs of Gemini and Cancer it is rainy season in India (Monsoon: 20th May – 20th July). In the Hindu moon calendar Chaitra these are Yeshta and Ashaadha.

The first day “Mahalaya” of the Durga feast, which is the most important ceremony for Hindus, falls on the new moon day and celebrates the return of the married daughter Durga to her father Himalaya (see IMC radio show: “Mother Durga – Ma Durga“).

Also the number of Chakras (body, spirit and soul) are twelve. The six lower Chakras are activated by the six seasons. The chakra Manipura is being activated by the bright moon light in the season Sarad Rithu. Manipura is mentioned as the third primary chakra (behind the solar plexus), also named as “the seat of the jewels”. The second chakra Svadhishthana is in relationship with the element water and the moon. Svadhishthana is being activated by moon and monsoon ragas like Raga Megh (see IMC broadcasting: “Ragas in the Indian Monsoon (rainy season ragas)”).

dates of broadcasting…
8th April 2013 – 10:00 pm  CET (04:00 pm EST) @ Radio RaSA (CH)
(premiere broadcasting: 19th October 2010 – 09:00 pm @ Tide 96.0 FM)

broadcasting plan | streaming (Internet Radio & Mobile Radio) | podCast

Ragas of North Indian Classics (Hindustani)…

The mood of the moon and its special atmosphere is recflected in the late evening raga Chandrakosh (or Chandrakauns). Kauns marks this moon raga in the ascending and descending scale as 5 note raga (pentatonic scale). Chandrakauns existed in its old form till the 19th and early 20th century as a popular Raga for recured melody forms, the Lahara-s (or known as ‘naghma-s’). This moon raga also was selected as an accompanying form for Tabla solos and for dance performances of Kathak (North Indian dance).

..

old (left) and new (right) scala form of raga Chandrakauns (source: chandrakantha.com)

The Sarode legend Ali Akbar Khan died at the age of 87 years, on 18 June 2009. This exceptional musician of North Indian Classics created the moon raga Chandranandan. It can be counted as one of the outstanding compositions of Ali Akbar Khan. Chandranandan is a mix of four traditional Ragas: Malkoush, Chandrakauns, Nandakoush and Kaushi Kanada. (see IMC radio show: “Tradition & Modernity – A Tribute to Ali Akbar Khan“.)

Another variant of a moon ragas is ChandraDhwani. A blend between the moon raga Chandrakauns and night raga Kaushik Dhwani. Both are 5 notes ragas (pentatonic). For Kaushik Dhwani the 2nd pitch Re (Rishabh) and 5th pitch Pa (Pancham) are omitted. All notes are played as “suddha” (natural).

South Indian Classics (Carnatic)… Ragams of Melakarta system…

Same as in Indian Astrology in South Indian Classics (Carnatic) there exist 12 groups (chakras) with each six Ragams. Altogether exist 72 Ragams in the the classification system of Carnatic music, called Melakarta system (see diagram). Ragams are the South Indian form equivalent to the North Indian Ragas. The first group is Indu, beside Chandra a second name for moon. There is only one moon, therefore Indu is the first group, the first Chakra in the Melakarta system. The color red (similar to Chakra Svadhisthana) is assigned to this Melakarta Chakra. Singing of these moon ragas makes the heart feels relieved. We feel the gentleness and pleasant effect of the full moon.

The following diagram shows all Ragams: 1st till 6th Melakarta Ragams (Kanakangi, Ratnangi, Ganamurti, Vanaspati, Manavati and Tanarupi) of the 1st Chakra Indu (Source: allcarnaticmusic.com)

Elements of Nature…

polished moon stones (source: t-fleece.com)

The element of the moon is water (see above: six seasons – varsha ritu). The moon regulates the months of rain (monsoon) and the water for the harvests while Mercur prevails over the period of growth and ripeness of fruit and Jupiter over the frosty months, in which leaves fall and the cold season begins. Chandra’s influence appears also in the food. The moon determines the structure of the rice.

In emotional colours the moon is understood as white, metal-silver. In India it is represented by pearls and moon stone which belongs to the group of the feldspars. The moon stone is a mineral variety of the Orthoklas. As genuine gem stone one finds it however very rarely as Cabochon – nearly translucent with tender-bluish gloss. The moon stone’s typical country of origin lies in direct neighborhood to India, on Sri Lanka.

———————————

Chand phir nikla
(movie: Paying Guest – vocalist: Late Mangeshkar – composer: S.D. Burman)

The Moon has came out again but you still not came
My heart is burning. What can I do now?
This night is telling me that those good old days are gone.
My heart is telling me that you are no longer mine.
Even then, I am still waiting with my eyes wide open
(with the hope that someday you will still come back to meet me).
I do not know what to do since thoughts of you come to my mind.
The smoke is coming out of fire burning inside my heart.
I feel choked now, please come back to me.
The shadow from spring has burnt my whole body.
I do not know what to do since thoughts of you come to my mind.

chaand phir nikla magar tum na aaye
jala phir mera dil karoon kya main haay
chaand phir nikla
yeh raat kehti hai woh din gaye tere
yeh jaanta hai dil ke tum nahin mere
khadi hoon main phir bhi nigahein bichaye
main kya karoon haay ke tum yaad aaye
chaand phir nikla magar tum na aaye
jala phir mera dil karoon kya main haay
chaand phir nikla
sulagte seene se dhuaan sa uthtaa hain
lo ab chale aao ke dam ghuthta hain
jala gayi tan ko baharon ke saaye
main kya karoon haay ke tum yaad aaye
chaand phir nikla magar tum na aaye
jala phir mera dil karoon kya main haay
chaand phir nikla

(Source: http://www.hindilyrics.net)

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We like to remember the 93rd birthday of sitar legend Pandit Ravi Shankar (1920-2012)

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on April 7, 2013

English: Live sitar concert with Ravi Shankar ...

English: Live sitar concert with Ravi Shankar and his daughter Anoushka Shankar (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Ravi Shankar , KBE (Bengali: রবি শংকর, IPA: [ˈrɔbi ˈʃɔŋkɔr]; 7 April 1920 – 11 December 2012), often referred to by the title Pandit, was an Indian musician and composer who played the sitar. He has been described as the best-known contemporary Indian musician.

Shankar was born in Varanasi and spent his youth touring Europe and India with the dance group of his brother Uday Shankar. He gave up dancing in 1938 to study sitar playing under court musicianAllauddin Khan. After finishing his studies in 1944, Shankar worked as a composer, creating the music for the Apu Trilogy by Satyajit Ray, and was music director of All India Radio, New Delhi, from 1949 to 1956.
In 1956, he began to tour Europe and the Americas playing Indian classical music and increased its popularity there in the 1960s through teaching, performance, and his association with violinist Yehudi Menuhin and rock artist George Harrison of the Beatles. Shankar engaged Western music by writing concerti for sitar and orchestra and toured the world in the 1970s and 1980s. From 1986 to 1992 he served as a nominated member of Rajya Sabha, the upper chamber of the Parliament of India. Shankar was awarded India’s highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1999, and received threeGrammy Awards. He continued to perform in the 2000s, sometimes with his younger daughter,Anoushka. He was posthumously awarded two Grammy awards in 2013, one for lifetime achievement, another for The Living Room Sessions Part 1 in the world music category.

Early life

Shankar was born Robindro Shaunkor Chowdhury on 7 April 1920 in Varanasi, to a Bengali Brahmin family as the youngest of seven brothers. His father, Shyam Shankar, a Middle Temple barrister and scholar who served as dewanof Jhalawar, used the Sanskrit spelling of the family name and removed its last part. Shyam was married to Shankar’s mother Hemangini Devi, and later worked as a lawyer in London, England. There he married a second time while Devi raised Shankar in Varanasi, and did not meet his son until he was eight years old. Shankar shortened the Sanskrit version of his first name, Ravindra, to Ravi, for “sun”.

At the age of ten, after spending his first decade in Varanasi, Shankar went to Paris with the dance group of his brother, choreographer Uday Shankar. By the age of 13 he had become a member of the group, accompanied its members on tour and learned to dance and play various Indian instruments. Uday’s dance group toured Europe and the United States in the early to mid-1930s and Shankar learned French, discovered Western classical music, jazz, cinema and became acquainted with Western customs. Shankar heard the lead musician for theMaihar court, Allauddin Khan, in December 1934 at a music conference in Kolkata and Uday convinced the Maharaja of Maihar in 1935 to allow Khan to become his group’s soloist for a tour of Europe. Shankar was sporadically trained by Khan on tour, and Khan offered Shankar training to become a serious musician under the condition that he abandon touring and come to Maihar.

Career

Training and work in India

Shankar’s parents had died by the time he returned from the European tour, and touring the West had become difficult due to political conflicts that would lead to World War II. Shankar gave up his dancing career in 1938 to go to Maihar and study Indian classical music as Khan’s pupil, living with his family in the traditional gurukul system. Khan was a rigorous teacher and Shankar had training on sitar and surbahar, learned ragas and the musical styles dhrupaddhamar, and khyal, and was taught the techniques of the instruments rudra veenarubab, and sursingar. He often studied with Khan’s children Ali Akbar Khan and Annapurna Devi. Shankar began to perform publicly on sitar in December 1939 and his debut performance was a jugalbandi (duet) with Ali Akbar Khan, who played the string instrument sarod.

Shankar completed his training in 1944. Following his training, he moved to Mumbai and joined the Indian People’s Theatre Association, for whom he composed music for ballets in 1945 and 1946. Shankar recomposed the music for the popular song “Sare Jahan Se Achcha” at the age of 25. He began to record music for HMV India and worked as a music director for All India Radio (AIR), New Delhi, from February 1949 to January 1956. Shankar founded the Indian National Orchestra at AIR and composed for it; in his compositions he combined Western and classical Indian instrumentation. Beginning in the mid-1950s he composed the music for the Apu Trilogy by Satyajit Ray, which became internationally acclaimed. He was music director for several Hindi movies including Godaan and Anuradha.

1956–69: International career

Ravi Shankar Audio Tape

Ravi Shankar Audio Tape (Photo credit: vermegrigio)

V. K. Narayana Menon, director of AIR Delhi, introduced the Western violinist Yehudi Menuhin to Shankar during Menuhin’s first visit to India in 1952. Shankar had performed as part of a cultural delegation in the Soviet Union in 1954 and Menuhin invited Shankar in 1955 to perform in New York City for a demonstration of Indian classical music, sponsored by the Ford Foundation
Shankar declined to attend due to problems in his marriage, but recommended Ali Akbar Khan to play instead. Khan reluctantly accepted and performed with Tabla (percussion) player Chatur Lal in the Museum of Modern Art, and he later became the first Indian classical musician to perform on American television and record a full raga performance, for Angel Records.

Shankar heard about the positive response Khan received and resigned from AIR in 1956 to tour the United Kingdom, Germany, and the United States. He played for smaller audiences and educated them about Indian music, incorporating ragas from the South Indian Carnatic music in his performances, and recorded his first LP album Three Ragas in London, released in 1956. In 1958, Shankar participated in the celebrations of the tenth anniversary of the United Nations and UNESCO music festival in Paris. From 1961, he toured Europe, the United States, and Australia, and became the first Indian to compose music for non-Indian films. Chatur Lal accompanied Shankar on tabla until 1962, when Alla Rakha assumed the role. Shankar founded the Kinnara School of Music in Mumbai in 1962.

Shankar befriended Richard Bock, founder of World Pacific Records, on his first American tour and recorded most of his albums in the 1950s and 1960s for Bock’s label. The Byrds recorded at the same studio and heard Shankar’s music, which led them to incorporate some of its elements in theirs, introducing the genre to their friend George Harrison of the Beatles. Harrison became interested in Indian classical music, bought a sitar and used it to record the song “Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)“. This led to Indian music being used by other musicians and created the raga rock trend.

Harrison met Shankar in London in June 1966 and visited India later that year for six weeks to study sitar under Shankar in Srinagar. During the visit, a documentary film about Shankar named Raga was shot by Howard Worth, and released in 1971. Shankar’s association with Harrison greatly increased Shankar’s popularity and Ken Hunt of Allmusic would state that Shankar had become “the most famous Indian musician on the planet” by 1966. In 1967, he performed at the Monterey Pop Festival and won a Grammy Award for Best Chamber Music Performancefor West Meets East, a collaboration with Yehudi Menuhin. The same year, the Beatles won the Grammy Award for Album of the Year for Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band, which included “Within You Without You” by Harrison, a song that was influenced by Indian classical music. Shankar opened a Western branch of the Kinnara School of Music in Los Angeles, California, in May 1967, and published an autobiography, My Music, My Life, in 1968. In 1968, he scored for the movie Charly. He performed at the Woodstock Festival in August 1969, and found he disliked the venue. In the 1970s Shankar distanced himself from the hippie movement.

1970–2012: International career

English: George Harrison, Gerald Ford, and Rav...

English: George Harrison, Gerald Ford, and Ravi Shankar in the Oval Office (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In October 1970 Shankar became chair of the department of Indian music of the California Institute of the Arts after previously teaching at the City College of New York, the University of California, Los Angeles, and being guest lecturer at other colleges and universities, including the Ali Akbar College of Music. In late 1970, the London Symphony Orchestra invited Shankar to compose a concerto with sitarConcerto for Sitar and Orchestra was performed with André Previn as conductor and Shankar playing the sitar. Hans Neuhoff of Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart has criticised the usage of the orchestra in this concert as “amateurish”. George Harrison organized the charity Concert for Bangladesh in August 1971, in which Shankar participated. After the musicians had tuned up on stage for over a minute, the naive crowd broke into applause, to which the amused Shankar responded: “If you like our tuning so much, I hope you will enjoy the playing more.” Although interest in Indian music had decreased in the early 1970s, the concert album became one of the best-selling recordings to feature the genre and won Shankar a second Grammy Award.

English: Pandit Ravi Shankar at the Department...

English: Pandit Ravi Shankar at the Department of Instrumental Music, Rabindra Bharati University. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

During the 1970s, Shankar and Harrison worked together again, recording Shankar Family & Friends in 1973 and touring North America the following year to a mixed response after Shankar had toured Europe with the Harrison-sponsored Music Festival from India. The demanding schedule weakened Shankar, and he suffered a heart attack in Chicago in November 1974, causing him to miss a portion of the tour. In his absence, Shankar’s sister-in-law, singer Lakshmi Shankar, conducted the touring orchestra. The touring band visited the White House on invitation of John Gardner Ford, son of U.S. President Gerald Ford. Shankar toured and taught for the remainder of the 1970s and the 1980s and released his second concerto, Raga Mala, conducted by Zubin Mehta, in 1981. Shankar was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Music Score for his work on the 1982 movie Gandhi, but lost to John Williams‘ E.T. He served as a member of the Rajya Sabha, the upper chamber of the Parliament of India, from 12 May 1986 to 11 May 1992, after being nominated by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. Shankar composed the dance drama Ghanashyam in 1989. His liberal views on musical cooperation led him to contemporary composer Philip Glass, with whom he released an album, Passages, in 1990.

Shankar underwent an angioplasty in 1992 due to heart problems, after which George Harrison involved himself in several of Shankar’s projects. Because of the positive response to Shankar’s 1996 career compilation In Celebration, Shankar wrote a second autobiography, Raga Mala, with Harrison as editor. He performed in between 25 and 40 concerts every year during the late 1990s. Shankar taught his daughter Anoushka Shankar to play sitar and in 1997 became a Regent’s Lecturer at University of California, San Diego. In the 2000s, he won a Grammy Award for Best World Music Album for Full Circle: Carnegie Hall 2000 and toured with Anoushka, who released a book about her father, Bapi: Love of My Life, in 2002. Anoushka performed a composition by Shankar for the 2002 Harrison memorial Concert for George and Shankar wrote a third concerto for sitar and orchestra for Anoushka and the Orpheus Chamber Orchestra. In June 2008, Shankar played what was billed as his last European concert, but his 2011 tour included dates in the United Kingdom.

Shankar performed his final concert, with daughter Anoushka, on 4 November 2012 at the Terrace Theater in Long Beach, California.

First T.V Appearence

“Ravishankar-A Legend of Glory”, produced by Prabir Roy represented Doordarshan in International T.V. Network Festival. This was held in Miami, U.S.A. in September,1984.

Style and contributions

Ravi Shankar - The Queen's Hall, Edinburgh 1

Ravi Shankar – The Queen’s Hall, Edinburgh 1 (Photo credit: The Queen’s Hall)

Shankar developed a style distinct from that of his contemporaries and incorporated influences from rhythm practices of Carnatic music. His performances begin with solo alapjor, and jhala (introduction and performances with pulse and rapid pulse) influenced by the slow and serious dhrupad genre, followed by a section with tabla accompaniment featuring compositions associated with the prevalentkhyal style. Shankar often closed his performances with a piece inspired by the light-classical thumrigenre.

Shankar has been considered one of the top sitar players of the second half of the 20th century. He popularized performing on the bass octave of the sitar for the alap section and became known for a distinctive playing style in the middle and high registers that used quick and short deviations of the playing string and his sound creation through stops and strikes on the main playing string. Narayana Menon of The New Grove Dictionary noted Shankar’s liking for rhythmic novelties, among them the use of unconventional rhythmic cycles. Hans Neuhoff of Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart has argued that Shankar’s playing style was not widely adopted and that he was surpassed by other sitar players in the performance of melodic passages. Shankar’s interplay with Alla Rakha improved appreciation for tabla playing in Hindustani classical music. Shankar promoted the jugalbandi duet concert style and introduced new ragas, including Tilak ShyamNat Bhairav and Bairagi.

Recognition

Shankar won the Silver Bear Extraordinary Prize of the Jury at the 1957 Berlin International Film Festival for composing the music for the movieKabuliwala. He was awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award for 1962, and was named a Fellow of the academy for 1975. Shankar was awarded the three highest national civil honours of India: Padma Bhushan, in 1967, Padma Vibhushan, in 1981, and Bharat Ratna, in 1999. He received the music award of the UNESCO International Music Council in 1975, three Grammy Awards, and was nominated for an Academy Award. Shankar was awarded honorary degrees from universities in India and the United States. He received the Kalidas Samman from the Government of Madhya Pradesh for 1987–88, the Fukuoka Asian Culture Prize in 1991, the Ramon Magsaysay Award in 1992, and the Polar Music Prize in 1998. In 2001, Shankar was made an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Elizabeth II for his “services to music”. Shankar was an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters and in 1997 received the Praemium Imperiale for music from the Japan Art Association. The American jazz saxophonist John Coltrane named his son Ravi Coltrane after Shankar. In 2010, Shankar received an Honorary Doctor of Laws from the University of Melbourne, Australia. He was also awarded France’s highest civilian honour, the Knight of the Legion of Honour. Post his death, Grammy has announced Pandit Ravi Shankar as a recipient of the lifetime achievement Grammy  like Glenn Gould, Charlie Haden, Lightnin’ Hopkins, Carole King, Patti Page and the Temptations. He was the first recipient of the Tagore Award in recognition of his outstanding contribution to cultural harmony and universal values.

Personal life and family

English: Ravi Shankar performs in Delhi with h...

English: Ravi Shankar performs in Delhi with his daughter Anoushka in March 2009 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Shankar married Allauddin Khan’s daughter

Annapurna Devi in 1941 and his son Shubhendra Shankarwas born in 1942. Shankar separated from Devi during the 1940s and had a relationship with Kamala Shastri, a dancer, beginning in the late 1940s.

An affair with Sue Jones, a New York concert producer, led to the birth of Norah Jones in 1979.

After separating from Kamala Shastri in 1981, Anoushka Shankar was born to Shankar and Sukanya Rajan. Shankar, however, lived with Sue Jones until 1986. He married Sukanya Rajan, whom he had known since the 1970s in 1989 at Chilkur Temple in Hyderabad, India.

Shubhendra “Shubho” Shankar often accompanied his father on tours. He could play the sitar and surbahar, but elected not to pursue a solo career. He died in 1992. Norah Jones became a successful musician in the 2000s, winning eight Grammy Awards in 2003. Anoushka Shankar was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best World Music Album in 2003. Anoushka and her father were nominated for Best World Music Album at the 2013 Grammy Awards for separate albums.

Shankar was a Hindu and a vegetarian. He wore a large diamond ring which he said was “manifested” by Sathya Sai Baba. He lived with Sukanya in Encinitas, California.

Illness and death

On 6 December 2012, Shankar was admitted to Scripps Memorial Hospital in La Jolla, San Diego, California after complaining of breathing difficulties. He died on 11 December 2012 at around 16:30 PST. According to his spokesman, Stuart Wolferman, Shankar died at a hospital near his home in Encinitas, California. The Ravi Shankar Foundation issued a statement that read Shankar had suffered from upper-respiratory and heart issues over the past year and underwent heart-valve replacement surgery on 6 December 2012.

Reactions

Condolences were extended by the President of IndiaPrime Minister of India and Indian parliament, Other reactions from the Indian political and cultural spheres included: Prime Minister Manmohan Singh‘s office which wrote on Twitter that he was “a national treasure and global ambassador of India’s cultural heritage.” His cabinet colleague Minister of State for Communications & IT Milind Deora wrote: “Being a maestro wasn’t his only achievement. Pandit Ravi Shankar sold Brand India better than anyone else. RIP.” Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi added onTwitter: “Sitar maestro Pandit Ravi Shankar was the legendary musician who gave new identity to Indian classical music. May his soul rest in peace.” While, India’s Ambassador to the U.S. Nirupuma Rao also wrote on Twitter: “Pandit Ravi Shankar: his last concert was particularly poignant. Anoushka and he played together in perfect unison. A torch was passed.” Other apolitical reactions included: Bollywood composer Vishal Dadlaniwho wrote on Twitter: “The world’s best-known exponent of Indian music, he influenced the Beatles, and hence everything since! RIP Pt. Ravi Shankar.” Santoor players Shiv Kumar Sharma said: “It is a great loss, not just to Indian music but to world music. He was a world musician.” NovelistHari Kunzru added on Twitter: “RIP Pandit Ravi Shankar. My father performed hand surgery on him. Stakes not low there…” Spiritual guru Sri Sri Ravi Shankar (not related) also wrote on Twitter: “Pandit Ravi Shankar was a legend in music and he took classical music to new heights.” His death was also noted in the international and foreign language media.

The Swara Samrat festival organized on January 5–6, 2013 was dedicated to Ravi Shankar and Ali Akbar Khan where musicians like Shivkumar SharmaBirju MaharajHari Prasad ChaurasiaZakir HussainGirija Devi etc. performed.

Improvisations (Ravi Shankar album)

Improvisations (Ravi Shankar album) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Discography

Bibliography

(Source: 04/2013 – Wikipedia.org)

Ravi Shankar teaches George Harrison…

Ravi Shankar & Anoushka Shankar Live: Raag Khamaj (1997)

Ravi Shankar (Live at The Carnegie Hall 25th May 1993) – Raga Mishra Pilu

Ravi Shankar & Ali Akbar Khan in Concert 1972  (part 1 of 3)

Ravi Shankar – Raga Parameshwari (from Ravi Shankar 70)

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