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Music Therapy Today (Magazin): Therapeutic Usefulness of Music (Issue 03/2006)

Posted by ElJay Arem (IMC OnAir) on January 15, 2006


Download complete issue March 2006 as PDF

Therapeutic Usefulness of Music

Sundar, S.

Conference proceedings of the 1st International Conference, 15. January 2006, Nada Centre for Music Therapy, Chennai, India


Sumathy Sundar
President of Nada Centre for Music Therapy , Chennai, India

India has the longest history of a rich music culture and heritage and the most resourceful healing traditions like Raga – Chikitsa, Nada Yoga and Vedic recitals which places sound and music at the centre stage of healing processes.

In the global front, recent times have witnessed an increasing interest in the complex interactions of mind and body and a shift to the integrated approach of treating the person as a whole rather than merely treating the disease and this has led to the use of complementary therapies which are a vital part of any integrated approach in the health care system, moving towards a more pluralistic approach to medical research and practice, encompassing the physical, psychological, spiritual and social dimensions of a person’s life.

FIGURE 1. Welcome address of the President of Nada Music Therapy Centre Sumathy Sundar

Nada Centre for Music Therapy, Chennai is a tiny organization striving hard to propagate and popularise Indian healing traditions and also to examine these traditions in a scientific manner in both clinical and non clinical environs through research, publications and development of the discipline `Music Therapy’ with special reference to the ethno-musicology of the Indian sub continent. The Centre also strives to evolve a dependable system of music therapy to alleviate the stress of the modern day lifestyle, as a holistic, non invasive and cost effective treatment method. The aim ultimately is to develop an integrative approach to health and healing and greater levels of peace and harmony in every conceivable situation in human interactions through music.

This pioneering attempt of the Centre to convene the First International Conference on the theme `Therapeutic Usefulness of Music’ is to bring together experts from diverse fields of specialization like musicology, psychology, alternative medicine and medicine across the globe, with a view to disseminate their feelings, knowledge, experience and belief on the prophylactic and therapeutic application of music in general and Indian music in particular, which would pave a strong way for the future course of action that the Centre should undertake in order to bring out the beneficial role of music in the society.

FIGURE 2. Nada conference registration desk. (from left to right: Sudha Srinivasan, Seetha Jayakumar, Priya Chellappa and Devi Suhir)

The conference, though a modest attempt, was a huge success and an inspiring event and Nada centre profusely thanks each and every one of the participants for having shared their most valued ideas, thoughts, feelings, reactions and suggestions with the Centre for the development of this discipline. The participants had a remarkable learning experience. Nada Centre compiled a conference handout book entitled “Souvenir 2006” containing international greeting addresses, some information on the Nada centre, further the welcome, the inaugural and the keynote addresses, the program schedule and the abstracts (See table of contents below).

FIGURE 3. Conference handout “Souvenir – 2006” released. (from left to right: P L Sanjeev Reddy, Ryo Takahashi and T V Sairam)

Dr. T V Sairam, a pioneering author and researcher in music therapy in India and Hon. Technical Advisor, Nada Centre for Music Therapy in his inaugural address gave a comprehensive presentation on Music Therapy: From Evangelism to Science, which gave a very good introduction and background for the participants to continue with the rest of the sessions.

FIGURE 4. Delegates of the conference from left to right: P K Seshadri, Kalluri Muralikrishna, P L Sanjeev Reddy, T V Sairam, Manjula Devi, Ryo Takahashi and Chandra Sankara Pavan

Dr. Ryo Takahashi, Chief Director, NCSA Centre for Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan in his key note address’ Interdisciplinary Musical Sense for Soul Development with Collaborative Learning in Gerontology through learning from Life of Leonardo da Vinci’ emphasized that music will help to improve Human Soul for collaborative learning for total life and that the Soul grows by See, Observe, Understand, and Learn from human nature including sound with sense.

Other topics of interest covered by the speakers from different fields of specialization were about Indian traditional healing techniques like Nada Yoga, Raga-Chikitsa, voice culture, Omkar shakthi, aesthetic and socio-cultural approaches to music therapy interventions having the key element of bhakthi (devotion) element in the repertoire based Indian music system etc., which provided a good background material for theorizing music therapy practice and research in India.

FIGURE 5. Nada Music Therapy Centre Book release: “Music Therapy, the sacred to profane” edited by TV Sairam (from left to right: P L Sanjeev Reddy, Ryo Takahashi and T V Sairam)

During this event, the Centre also published a book called ‘Music Therapy, The Sacred, and the Profane’ – edited by T V Sairam, a compilation of articles from renowned authors across the globe on the subject. The contributions were from experts in different specialization like music therapy, medicine, alternative medicine, musicology and psychology. The Centre profusely thanks all the contributors for spending their time to share their knowledge generously.

The Centre is especially thankful to the experts in music therapy from different parts of the world like Dr. Carolyn Kenny, Dr. Michael Mc Guire, Dr. Suzanne Hanser, Dr. Dorit Amir and Dr. Jörg Fachner, who have been very supportive to the conference by sharing their ideas and suggestions electronically though could not be present physically during the conference. I also thank and its Editor Dr. Jörg Fachner for his valued suggestions and support in bringing out the proceedings in this journal and I am most pleased to share with all the readers of this journal, the proceedings of the conference and the abstracts of the papers presented during the conference.

Therapeutic Usefulness of Music
T V Sairam

Inaugural Address

The therapeutic usefulness of music is not a modern concept. It is as ancient as the human civilization. Long before the human species invented language and tools, the sound was the only source of relieving pain and anxiety. The sound was used not only for generating emotions (such as pathos when a tribal member is dead or joy when there is union through marriage etc.) but also for its release. Sound of drums particularly, could be used to dispel fear during the war between the tribes or during hunting animals. This was in addition to aahs and oohs of vocalization that removed inhibition due to fear or suppression by the pecking leadership. Rhythms (intervals of time) and melodies (pitch/sound vibrations per sec.) were variously used to express one’s love or hatred, joy or anger, devotion or indifference. The ancient tribes used the iso-principle, matching of mood to appropriate music and entrainment, i.e., after matching initial mood moving towards more positive mood in their cultural expressions woven in and around drumming, singing and group dancing. Music not only brought in healthy behaviour and social interaction but also strength to individuals as well as to societies across the globe.

Some Recent Scientific Research on the Therapeutic Usefulness of Music

Researchers from the Mind-Body Wellness Center in Meadville, PA, conducted research with cancer patients that involved those playing drums. The results showed, among other things, stronger immune systems as a result of the “music therapy.”

The article says, “It seems now more than ever the healing power of music, over body and spirit, is being put to the test.” Many of us have always felt that music could help with healing. Now science is starting to show that we are right.

The New York Academy of Sciences recently published Biological Foundations of Music, a collection of scientific research, which demonstrates, ‘the dynamism and richness of this emerging discipline’ of music and neuroscience. The USA Weekend article talks about how music, both listening to it and playing it, can change brain function, and how our bodies respond to stimuli. Studies are showing that cancer patients, those with Alzheimer’s, pain patients, and those with many other diseases, benefit from music. A study with Alzheimer’s patients showed that music helped them sleep better, because their serum Melatonin level went up significantly. One of the researchers said, “for the first time, we’ve been able to measure music’s impact.”

Stress and Music

Particularly now, with the events like 9/11, tsunami etc. and the threats and incidences of bio-terrorism, most of us face more stress than we could handle. It is important for us to find ways to decrease our stress levels through music and imagery, which have been the time-tested remedies.

Alpha or soothing music helps towards relaxation as it lessens stress and anxiety in all sections of people, be it surgeons or those undergoing surgery. Reports coming across the world indicate that less pain is felt in the case of pediatric burn patients, abdominal surgery patients. There is also research that shows music helping to strengthen the immune system.

Therapeutic music, like music, is universal. It need not be restricted to classical or folk, jazz or baroque. Different elements in these sounds – including nature sounds – can prove therapeutic.

Using Music in ICU (After Johnston and Rohaly-Davis, 1996):

1.Assess baseline anxiety, pain etc.
2. Assess personal interest and preference
3 Ensure quiet, uninterrupted environment
4. 20 to 30 minutes BID
5. Evaluation of subjective and objective responses

Allen and Lawrence Golden of the University of Buffalo have recently shown that those who listened to their choice of music during eye surgery had significantly lower heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac work load than patients who did not listen to music.

The study focused on 40 cataract or glaucoma patients ranging in age from 51-88. The patients were divided into two groups, each composed of 15 women and five men. Two participating surgeons treated half of each group.

Patients in the experimental group listened to music of their choice through headphones before, during and after surgery. Those in the control group did not listen to music at any time.

Heart rate and blood pressure of all patients shot up the morning of surgery. These measures of cardiovascular stress dropped significantly in the music group within 10 minutes of tuning in, and remained low, results showed. Only in the music group did cardiovascular measures nearly reach baseline, Allen said.

Music patients also rated the stress of surgery lower and their ability to cope higher than the control group.

“If this were a drug intervention, people would be clamoring for it,” said Allen. “Patients like it, it’s cheap and effective, and has no negative side effects. Hospitals could offer it and be heroes to their patients.”

Stress reduction and analgesia in patients exposed to calming music postoperatively:

In yet another study by Nilsson, Unosson and Rawal, seventy-five patients undergoing open hernia repair as day care surgery were randomly allocated to three groups: intra-operative music, postoperative music and silence (control group). Anesthesia and postoperative analgesia were standardized and the same surgeon performed all the operations. Stress response was assessed during and after surgery by determining the plasma cortisol and blood glucose levels. Immune function was evaluated by studying immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels. Patients’ postoperative pain, anxiety, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation were also studied as stress markers. The results indicated that there was a significantly greater decrease in the level of cortisol in the postoperative music group vs. the control group (206 and 72 mmol L(-1) decreases, respectively) after 2 h in the post anesthesia care unit. The postoperative music group had less anxiety and pain and required less morphine after 1 h compared with the control group. In the postoperative music group the total requirement of morphine was significantly lower than in the control group. The intra operative music group reported less pain after 1 h in the post anesthesia care unit. There was no difference in IgA, blood glucose, BP, HR and oxygen saturation between the groups. This study strongly suggested that intra operative music may decrease postoperative pain, and that postoperative music therapy may reduce anxiety, pain and morphine consumption.

Role of Imagery in Enhancing the Therapeutic Impulses in Music

Imagery is an ancient healing approach in the primitive human societies, which is based on belief, hope and trust in God, which is one’s own being. Imagery includes things such as one’s perception of a stimulus in the absence of a stimulus. For example perceiving the taste of the lemon and then tasting it or perceiving the ice-cold water and then touching it to compare one’s experience.

Expectation of opposing experiences such as cold and hot, desert air and garden breeze, burning pain and cooling comforts through imagery provide certain flexibility which makes the mind prepared for any events. This concept was known as yoga nidra.

Music can be proactive to imagery.

Relaxing before imagery exercise and identifying the imagery goal (‘active visualization of desired outcome’) before ending with the image of desired state (e.g., healed wound) could be worked out with appropriate music. Sometimes meaningful assertions like ‘I am getting well’ can also do wonders.

It has been found that the outcome of imagery and appropriate music could be manifold: heart rate could go up or down depending on them. While BP could go up with fear/anger images, pain and/or anxiety before /during and after surgery were found to be considerably decreased. Performance levels of athletics are also reported to be increased with appropriate music and imagery.

More research is however needed to make music therapy a reliable, scientific discipline.

Interdisciplinary Musical Sense for SOUL Development with Collaborative Learning in Gerontology through learning from Life of Leonardo da Vinci
Ryo Takahashi (1)


Gerontology Principles

Gerontology is based on the study of life and death education. Gerontology is the interdisciplinary study on aging from birth through death. This also includes the study of aging and disabilities. Human nature has an eternal progressive evolution regardless of age. Therefore it is said that the most important thing to observe is spiritual wellbeing which is related to spiritual harmony.

About the Chakra-s

In a human body, there is an ether body, a body of energy, which is of a higher order than the physical body. Its shape is the same as the physical body and its color is creamy white. It’s just like portraits painted by Leonard Fujita. In the ether body, there are number of energy paths called “Nadi” or the energy channel. These Nadi-s cross or link up with the “Chakra-s” -the psycho energetic center that exists along side the central axis of the human body. Chakra-s have the meaning of “wheel” or “circle”, and they are actually swirls of Prana that circulate in different speed.

According to yoga teaching, there are seven major Chakra-s in a human body. But the Chakras taught in yoga are the ones that link up with an energy channel called Susumna running through the spinal canal, and are different than those that are on the surface of the body as it is being discussed in today’s inner psychological world.

Actually, Chakra-s are divided into three systems as it is shown in the picture. Firstly, the seven Chakra-s on the Conception Vessel located on the surface of the front side of the body. Secondly, the seven Chakra-s of the nerve plexus located on the central axis that connects the crown and the root. Thirdly, the seven Chakra-s located inside the spinal canal.

Each Chakra located on the body surface, in the nerve plexus and in the spinal cord is directed in two ways -emission and absorption of Prana or energy. The colors shown in the picture stand for the emission and absorption from the body’s surface. Each two of these colors are complementary to each other. Chakra-s are often colored in spectral hues, but in reality, they may only be activated through the right colors. In each section of Chakra-s are shown the right colors.

We will take the Svadhisthana Chakra for instance to explain how to view the chart for each Chakra that you might understand easily. Its locations are described in the order of body surface, nerve plexus (for men and women) and spinal cord. The Svadhisthana Chakra on the body surface is located on acupressure points called Kangen for men and Kikai for women. The same Chakra of the nerve plexus is located in between the two seminal vesicles for men and inside the womb for women. And finally, that Chakra of spinal cord is located at the end of the tailbone.

“Lucky Seven” means to activate the 7 Chakra-s

“7” means completion. For example, think about the moon, Mercury, Venus, the sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn -the 7 planets of Solar System. This is the origin of the 7 tones of music, the 7 color of lights, the 7 elements (silver, quick silver, copper, gold, iron, tin, and lead) and the seven glands of human body.

In addition to that, “refers to a live state where the vital energy is functioning properly, and “” refers to the state where the vital energy has vanished. In Christianity, there are 7 days in a week because it took 7 days to finish the creation.

As you can see, “7” is indispensable for life and the opening of “the 7 Chakra-s” mean “the Completion of one’s self”.

Hearing music will not only affect the whole body, but even the soul. That is because each Chakra reacts to “the 7 tunes in sol-fa” and affects each other, which will make the energy expand.Since Kataoka has discovered the Moon Tempo (Extreme Tempo 116) and the release of the CD “Music to Invite the Moon”, many people have reported its effect. This ripple spread throughout Japan, which made me realize more clearly “the importance of tempo and potential of music”. This led Kataoka’s musical desire to the unknown area.

That area is “Chakra”. It was his adoration to compose “the Music of Chakra”

He had felt that if I could activate “the 7 Chakra-s” with music, that will be a contribution for the people facing conflict. He asked himself, “Is there a way that anyone can easily open up the Chakra-s? Or is it impossible with music?” Then, the answer came.

Leonardo da Vinci Learning Approach

Leonardo da Vinci is known as an artist in the area of creative music in addition to being famous as one of the greatest painter the world ever knew. Once a person notices a sense of feeling through harmony, an ability to “understand” through the heart will be increased without the need to use any words. All people have the capacity to communicate through their feelings. We also have the ability to understand through different channels such as our talents and our intelligence. Gardner1999speaks about the following 10 principles as aspects of, and avenues for, out ability to understand: Linguistic intelligence; Logical-mathematical intelligence; Musical intelligence; Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence; Spatial intelligence; Interpersonal intelligence; Intrapersonal intelligence; Naturalist intelligence; Spiritual intelligence; and finally, Moral intelligence. Gardner counts Natural and Spiritual Intelligence as personal intelligence and Moral Intelligence as the most spiritual one. Through applying these principles into our day to day lives we all may find that each one of us has some gifts of being we could share with others. Just as we all have gifts we are also able to understand that nobody is perfect. Each one of us has some disabilities like, for many of us, the inability to speak different languages.

Harmony of Arts and Sound

We live with harmony throughout our lives. When we live with good tuning or feeling, our lives will be inspired. That is called HADO. According to Masaru Emoto(2005) `Hado’ is the intrinsic vibrational pattern at the atomic leveling all matter. The smallest unit of energy. Its basis is the energy of human consciousness.Our body is made with 70% of water so that water can be effected by visual and sound as well as human kinds. When the one listens good and kind words, s/he feels good that will effect our daily lives.

Death Education

In order to begin death education there is a need for us to know ourselves; to know who we are and where we did come from, which, in this case, means what is our family lineage. We need to write down our parents’ names and their parents’ names and the great grand parents names. It is always interesting to find out how many people could really remember your great grand parents? That is the way we start in the workshop to review our own life. Following these types of exercises, and to help us think about our life and our death we will watch the program on a video. And then we will have the opportunity to discuss our feelings regarding our life and our death.


Music will help to improving human SOUL for collaborative learning for total life. SOUL will be grown by See, Observe, Understand, and Learning from human nature including sound with sense. Through these principles educational curriculum can be developed for all people throughout the world by approaching cafeteria curriculum. NSCA Center for Gerontology has a vision to establish Leonardo da Vinci Center for Gerontology for all over the world on April 15, 2012 for Da Vinci’s 560th annual birthday.

FIGURE 6. Nilofer Arshad presenting the delegates

Abstracts of the papers presented during the Conference

1. Music Therapy – A Review of Current Evidence in the United States

Dr. Yamini V. Saripalli, Washington D.C. USA


Music therapy has recently been gaining increasing popularity in Western medicine. However, there are limited large scale randomized controlled trials that have been conducted in the United States. Therefore it can be difficult to have hospitals, administration and managed care to approve music therapy, alone or as an adjunct, for the treatment of disease. This paper stresses the need for more randomized, double- blinded controlled trials to increase the use of music therapy in the United States.

2. Music Therapy to Reduce Anxiety Associated with Intrathecal Chemotherapy in Children with Acute Childhood Leukemia

Smitha Vellanky, Queen’s University, Canada


Acute childhood leukemia is the most common form of cancer in young children. There are two types of acute childhood leukemia: (a) acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) – more common and peaks in children between the ages of 2 and 8; and (b) acute myelogeneous leukemia (AML) – occurs in older children (ages 12 and over). There are four stages of treatment for children with acute childhood leukemia:

(i) induction
(ii) intensification/consolidation
(iii) maintenance
(iv) relapse

Intrathecal chemotherapy, involving injection of chemotherapy drugs through the spinal column into the cerebrospinal fluid, is received by all children during the course of the treatment. This procedure ensures that any leukemia cells that would have spread to the central nervous system are killed (CNS prophylaxis). Lumbar punctures done to administer intrathecal chemotherapy are associated with considerable amount of anxiety and distress in children owing to the pain associated with the procedure. Intrathecal chemotherapy is a stressful procedure that may not always be administered under anesthesia and hence, there is a need for reducing anxiety in children undergoing this procedure.

This study will be a single-centre, randomized, unblinded, placebo controlled study of music therapy during intrathecal chemotherapy procedure in children with acute childhood leukemia in an outpatient setting. The study will consist of two treatment arms – live music therapy during intrathecal chemotherapy and placebo (no music therapy). Live music will be played or sung by a music therapist during intrathecal chemotherapy to children in the music therapy intervention group. Anxiety is defined as a vague feeling of uneasiness or apprehension that is directly related to fear surrounding an unfamiliar environment. Anxiety in the children will be measured using the self-administered State-Trait Anxiety Scale for Children (STAIC) which is a well-validated and widely used tool. The findings of the proposed study could indicate if live music therapy should be allowed as a standard therapeutic procedure in order to reduce anxiety in children undergoing intrathecal chemotherapy. Music Therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to gain physical and emotional healing and wellness. Live music, with improvisations within the context of the moment, may be particularly crucial for young children who relate best to songs that can be made relevant to their immediate experience. It can provide a familiar auditory environment thus, distracting the child’s attention from any pain or anxiety. However, there have been virtually no studies done regarding anxiety in leukemic children undergoing intrathecal chemotherapy or on the effect of live music therapy on anxiety in children with acute childhood leukemia. Currently, there are no standardized anxiety-reducing techniques being applied to ease the stress associated with the procedure indicating the need for an evidence-based study of the same.

3. Music therapy during Dental Procedures

Dr. Padmapriya, Abudhabi, UAE


Music Therapy for specific medical reasons have been well documented and researched all over the world and diverse research results of music therapy during dental procedures which are time consuming and also which needs patients’ cooperation has also been comprehensively meta-analysed. This paper is an attempt to verify through physiological, self report and behaviourally observed measures, the benefits of simple music therapy sessions by exposition method during dental procedures in a dental clinic at Abudabi by the author. Three case studies involving treatment variables like pain and anxiety before procedures have been taken into consideration for administration of music therapy sessions. Pre and post music session assessment forms used for documentation and video recordings of the therapy sessions during dental procedures are also presented which indicates the benefits of music therapy sessions during dental procedures.

4. A Comparative Analysis on the Definitions of Music Therapy

Darshanan S.,
Department of Music, University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka.


Music is an accepted universal art of linguistic expression, irrespective of limitations like nation, race, religion, and language. Musical compositions may be in different languages with distinctive motivations towards devotion, love, nature, beauty, peace and inner awareness. However, any kind of music should have the quality of pleasing the ear. Apart from using music for entertainment, applying music for therapeutic purpose gives a different value for music.

There are lot of definitions given to music therapy by the worldwide researchers of music and related areas according to their understandings. This research analyses those different definitions and tries to find out the most appropriate one. Time limitations have restricted this study to taking into account twenty definitions from the internet resources by the researchers of Scandinavia and Britain.

At the end of discussion the following definition to music therapy has been obtained as the most appropriate. “Music therapy is the use of music as medicine”

5. Approach to Music Therapy Intervention

Sumathy Sundar
Ph.D. research scholar in Clinical Music therapy with University of Madras.
President, Nada Centre for Music Therapy, Chennai, India


Music Therapy is both the art of music and the science of healing, working in tandem. It involves techniques and interpretations, bridging the gap between arts and science, towards a balanced approach. It is an application of broad range of music with procedures, protocols, techniques or methods adopted for application in clinical set ups. Music therapy is based both in culture and context and music therapy interventions involve assessment of various factors before treatment planning. Benefit of music therapy depends on determining the patient’s music preference and necessitates a music therapist to develop an efficient means of determining such preference. Factors like musical upbringing, cultural background, personality, musical training and musical taste in family lineage influence musical preferences, music listening pattern and musical selection which are vital with regard to music therapy. Based on these factors, it becomes important to adopt appropriate approaches to be tried to achieve the desired goals.

This paper discusses two different approaches like

The raga-based aesthetic and analytical approach and
The genre-based socio-cultural approach in detail.
Demonstrations on these approaches with raga-s (emphasis on specific notes, the intervals between them, the different embellishments in use) and songs with the same raga base in different genre are included in the presentation.

6. Raga – Chikitsa in Cardiovascular Diseases

Dr. Suvarna Nalapat,
Head and Professor, Department of Pathology (Retd), Amritha Institute of Medical Sciences, Ernakulam


OBJECTIVE: To study effects of Indian classical music in reducing tension, anxiety, stress, blood pressure and pain (modifiable factors of heart disease1) Music can be used in therapy and as therapy2. The current project explored both the possibilities giving stress to the use of music as therapy in a hospital set up. Music in therapy establishes contact and facilitates rapport between patients and caretakers. The music is the opening wedge between two individuals, 3 here the therapist and patient. The modifying factors of coronary artery disease and the role of music in altering them so that it can be used both as preventive and curative tool in heart disease was studied.

INTRODUCTION: In music as therapy, therapist is not concerned with the aesthetics of music but with functional music which gives relief or cures the patient. We used both to get maximum effects and yet in this pilot project we are presenting our experience of music as therapy (the results measured from a medical point of view rather than from musical point of view.)It is not just an alternative therapy, but therapy itself.

We selected the voice and personality of the musician and therapist in our institution so that we get maximum results. Our statistically proven study shows the impact of music on prevention of heart diseases which is prevalent in our country.

METHOD OF STUDY: We had our therapeutic programme with a team of people, including a specially trained musician with postdoctoral experience in music teaching, an indologist-pathologist with interdisciplinary knowledge in Yoga, music, Ayurveda, Jyothisha and literature, a clinical psychologist and physicians well versed in doing research on human behaviour and psychology and on pain and palliative care.

The questionnaire.(sample)
To be filled in by patient, physician and music therapist separately.

The therapist assesses musical background and musical preferences of the patient independently.

As first step, simple and common raga-s according to musical background and preference of patient given. We gave human voice, with least instruments, except a thambura and an organ playing soft sounds like that of chirping birds and gurgling streams at the beginning of the first session. The members were given the music in different settings.

1. in closed AC room without disturbance.

2. room where outside disturbances like phone, automobiles etc. were there.

3. study with same music in open ground in public meeting place, conducted with unknown people, (not volunteers or patients)

4. music to patients with cancer chemotherapy, pain of different organs, spastic children, pregnant females etc.(outside the control voluntary patients)

The second step was to give specific raga-s for each patient depending upon their chakra (organ affected) and the cosmic energy field (birth star).
The BP, respiratory and pulse rate, anxiety scale (Hamilton’s) and pain index assessed prior and after session.


Raga preferences
Voice preferences
Voices selected
Instructions given

The subjective factor-written feedback.
The objective factor
BP and respiratory rate and pulse rate before, after 15 minutes of playing music and after the test and the Hamilton’s anxiety score and pain score

Tables, statistics and discussion.
Academic principles behind selection of voice
Difference from other studies


(will be presented along with power point presentation to substantiate the points.)

7.Basic Science Research Applications in Western Models of Music Therapy

Mohan D. Sundararaj MBBS, BMus, MT-BC, ATCL
Board-Certified Music Therapist (USA)
Resident House-Surgeon – Sri Ramachandra Medical College & Research Institute, Chennai, India
Official Representative (Near & Middle East Countries), WFMT Council


Basic science research entails the speculation of biological and chemical processes that underlie specific physiologic and pathophysiological functions. These may include the role of specific pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, and the nature of their impact on the human body. Music therapy as an established allied health care profession came into existence in the United States during the 20th century succeeding the inculcation of educational and clinical programmes, research and most importantly a certification process to address the issue of accountability. The origins of music therapy prior to this period were apparent only in traditional practices and clinical models in hospitals during the post-war era. Over the last twenty years, biomedical investigations have taken a significant place in music medicine research thereby improving our understanding of how music therapy impacts the human condition at a cellular and molecular level. These in-depth evaluations are necessary to add further credibility to the profession of music therapy and to sufficiently integrate this complementary intervention with mainstream medicine. Such collaboration leads to an effective practice of `Integrative Medicine’. This paper identifies the need for basic science research in music therapy to corroborate its role in health care thus advancing our strategies towards evidence-based methods. Basic science research is essential for progress, vital to the evolution of music therapy and will ultimately lead to better patient care.

8. Rhythm as Vitalising Tonic

Dr. Lalitha Ramakrishna
Research Director, Tattvaloka, Chennai


Rhythm is called laya and tala in Indian music. It has profound mythical origins. Nataraja the lord of dance creates the universe with rhythmic syllables that flow out of the drum that he holds in his right hand. The order that is seen in the regular patterns of the seasons, of birth, growth and death, of the respiration in all living beings, the patterns of the galaxies and the order within the nucleus of the atoms – all point to the significance of rhythm in human life and our environment. In a puzzling paradox, Lord Nataraja who begins creation with his rhythmic dance is also the Lord of destruction when he performs the Tandava dance there is total upheaval and destruction and the cosmos becomes extinct. This gives us the message that rhythm can destroy. The power of regular rhythmic beats with its stress and silence intervals must be recognised and then used for its curative value.

In the classical system, laya is the father and melody is the mother of all music. This means that laya confers life and energy; it creates enthusiasm. The symbol of father is one of authority.It suggests affirmative masculine qualities. This is needed today when there are more lonely people, more rootless people, who need the support of a father figure.

In classical music laya and tala are not culture specific and thus transcend national boundaries. Rhythms can be enjoyed and used by even those who do not understand classical music.

Rhythm apart from curing diseases such as depression and autism can make normal people sharper in their faculties. Rhythm is based on numbers and mathematics. A great deal of calculation and skill is necessary to perform the complex tala-s of Indian classical music. This helps to enhance the memory and reflexes of the performer and the audience who keep the rhythm along with him.

In folk music, rhythm is more dominant than melody. All early tribal societies explored rhythm. Chanting brought about altered conditions of mind in the group and made them amenable to discipline. Rhythmic songs brought individuals together during festivals and strengthened community bonds. Rhythm helped to relieve monotonous and unpleasant tasks that were a necessary part of tribal living. As recreation, simple repetitive group songs gave a `high’ and brought in cheer without the dependence on liqueur or drugs.

Rhythm is a powerful aid in the cure of modern maladies especially those of the psychosomatic type.

9. TIGER DANCE – A THERAPEUTIC TREASURE – Holistic Applications for Traditional Arts of India

T.Saraswathi Devi
Lebenshilfe, A.P. India


Tiger Dance Therapy is a new conception and a therapeutic innovation developed to drive the people with intellectual disabilities having aberrant and other behaviour disorders towards overall development.

The idea of Tiger Dance Therapy is to translate the irregular body movements of the mentally handicapped into meaningful gestures, tuning to the tiger hunt jumps with rhythmic drum beats.

The innovative adaptation of Tiger Dance or Puli Vesham, a folk form of art of Andhra Pradesh by T. Saraswathi Devi and her efforts in using tiger dance technique utilizing the drum-beat will create a sense of interest in the delegates.

Author Saraswathi Devi, founder of Lebenshilfe in India will discuss the origin and applications of this therapy, its psychological, physiological, and social benefits, and highlight future possibilities regarding the adaptation of traditional Indian arts as holistic therapy in her paper presentation.

It is a low-cost training technique leading to a total Body-Mind application, bringing amazing results. Through rhythmic drum-beat which improves hearing skills and sense of reasoning. Children with irregular movements, jerky gait, and poor walking balance learn to match their body movements suitable to the drum- beats as per the commands of the brain thus leading to motor skills development. It provides a provision for a lot of foot, neck and shoulder work, closer to some yoga postures all go by sounds of the drums.

The author’s endeavors to teach the expressions skills such as anger, aggression, love, affection, happiness, joy etc. to the retarded by encouraging them to imitate the tiger cubs play and the movements of the tigers and tigresses following the sounds are shown in this paper.

Tiger Dance is proved to be an effective therapy to help children gain emotional control, acting as an outlet for accumulated aggression, tension, stress and other such feelings.

The success of Tiger Dance Therapy has captured the attention of mental health professionals throughout the world: Papers presented on Tiger Dance Therapy at several international conferences in India, Australia, Finland, and Germany caught the attention of experts in the field drawing their attention towards looking into possibilities of Tiger Dance as a research project.

FIGURE 7. Demonstration of the Tiger Dance by T.S. Devi


Dr. Harre Harren, Pondicherry


The practice of Indian Music Therapy in the nations of other World by Dr.M.Harre Harren, the music therapist and healer from India. His visits to various countries like USA, Japan, Australia, Singapore, Europe has been very noticeable and more than 160 people have benefited from his Music Therapy. The methodology used for healing people has been very systematic and at a slow pace with the result several people have found unimaginable changes in their health care and life style. Many clients who were otherwise depressed and daunted by personal problems have come out of their trauma and are free today from their life ending situations. They are now living happily making use of Indian Music Therapy.

Dr.M.Harre Harren, an accredited Music Therapist who has attended more than six International Conferences in Music Therapy and Music Education in South Korea, USA, Japan, Singapore, Australia will talk about his experiences with his clients on the various situations of using Indian Music therapy for healing and rejuvenation.”

11. Stress Management using Indian Classical Music

Mr. Jaydeep Chakraborty, Kolkata


The effects of anxiety and stress on human behaviour have been widely recognized. Music also taps into our neural machinery and places music therapy squarely into the realm of science. The approach describes a non-invasive method of applying Indian Classical music for reducing stress. This approach differs from the Music Therapy as it attempts to reduce stress in a proactive manner using Indian Classical Music and has the following steps

Identify the various causes and situation of stress and effects on the human brain
Identify the “Raga-s” and the corresponding “Rasa-s” that they produce
Identify the “Rasa-s” as defined in the Natya Shastra and study them for similar effects on the brain
Check if the “Rasa” can counteract the causes of stress as outlined in Step 1.
Derive a relationship of Ragas and Situations for Proactive Stress Management.
In the IT sector where we work with tight schedules and work to be completed within stiff deadlines, a certain amount of good stress (Eustress) may be generated. However one may land up into the situation of a breaking point where the stress becomes a distress. This may manifest in the form of head jamming. Another stress factor also noted is a sense of insecurity causing anxiety neurosis and finally leading to chronic anxiety state. Hence this approach could be beneficial for the IT industry. Also besides opening doors for research on Indian Classical Music, benefits to the society are also perceived in rendering acceptable mode of treatment.

12. Music Therapy In Palliative Care

Dr. V Srinivasan, MDRT,
Radiation Oncologist, Kamakshi Memorial Hospital, Chennai


This paper is an eye opener to the use of music therapy in palliative Care. Palliative care extends beyond meeting the medical and nursing needs of terminally ill patients by addressing not only their physical, but also the psychological, social and spiritual needs and music therapy has the ability to address each of these needs. It is well documented that music therapy is beneficial for palliative care patients and their families and complements the primary goal of palliative care in addressing the quality of life issues for cancer patients and their families. This paper discusses about how music therapy promotes comfort, soothes and energizes the patients, helps in pain management, stimulates the expression of thoughts and feelings and provides sensory stimulation and diminishes pain.

13. Music’s inherent therapy power.

Mr. Kalluri Muralikrishna, Hyderabad


This paper discusses about music’s inherent therapy power, how it is generated and works. Swara-s – Frequencies – Harmonics – Symmetrical resultants. Also how human body controls curing of various diseases and how music helps the human body in this. Raga-s -Classification – Sampoorna, Audava, Shadava and Vakra raga-s and their different actions. Raga as Medicine, raga-s for various diseases and ailments. Implementation and practice of music therapy, the systematic and intuitional processes, group therapies, the future of music therapy whether as alternate therapy or self acting or complementary, experimental results and statistics are elucidated.

14. Tevara Trinity: Pioneers of Music Therapy

Dr. T Kalaivani,
Avinashilingam University,Lecturer(SS) in Music, Coimbatore – 641043

Prof. S Tamilvelu,
Department of Tamil, AVC College, (Autonomous) Mayiladuthurai 609 305


Art of Music is the foremost and important art among the 64 arts. From the very beginning, musical art served as a treasure of people’s culture, civilization, humanism and other features of life.

Music served as a medium to spread religious doctrines, to evoke thirst for freedom and to teach good and evil things in life. It was a part of every movement of human activity and was used as medicine to cure diseases of people.

The Trinity of Tevara glorified god through their songs and also achieved some miracles in their life with the help of music

They have cured diseases of people by way of their songs called `pans’. This paper makes a comparative study of the songs used by the Trinity to cure diseases and the respective ragas of the modern times.

As a result of this study, the researcher concludes that the Trinity of Tevara were pioneers in making use of the ragas as a remedy for several ailments.

15. Music – Panacea for the Elderly

Munmun Ghosh, Mumbai


In her late 50s, Rangamani Surenkumar, engaged in the care of her twin grand daughters, hums almost all day long. Having gone back to Karnatak classical music with a vengeance and enrolled as a student of the same, she claims nothing calms her like music. Likewise, septaagenarian Mr. T. Bhatia locates great joy and peace in the cooling waters of Rabindra Sangeet. 67-year-old Kamala Ghosh is listening to music more than ever before, in her expanded leisure hours. Even whilst cooking, she prefers to listen to bhajans as she believes this helps her to progress spiritually. For Mrs. Sahur, singing bhajans every evening at the local Sai Baba temple is the most potent multivitamin that she can take and that keeps her healthy and anchored. Music, an ineluctable part of our lives at every stage, assumes a larger role in our mature years, evolving into an effective, painless, inexpensive therapy.

For what is music? In a broader sense, music is any pattern, in a more limited sense, it is any sound-pattern that pleases us, and as opposed to noise that offends our senses. Penetrating our systems through our sense of hearing, music affects our entire being and fills every pore of it like fragrance fills a room. The body recognises music, as much as the mind, and responds to it instinctively. Music can stimulate, provoke, arouse our passions, energise and also soothe and relax us completely. Not surprising then that every community in the world has evolved different kinds of music just as it has evolved different languages and art forms. India being a pluralistic society has thrown up an almost bewildering variety of musical forms in folk, classical, vocal, instrumental, and dance categories. The word `music’ comprises vocal, instrumental and dance forms.

As we grow older, our musical preferences modify in tune with our bodies, our situations and mind-sets. It has been noticed that as elders, we tend to go back to the kind of music we grew up listening to, even if we had rejected it in our youth and sought exposure to other forms of music. The mature mind seeks the comfort of the familiar and is inclined to reject newer, emerging forms of music. (This is a point I would like to explore in detail in my paper.)

In India, the elderly generally turn to the rich repertoire of devotional songs and classical music that we have inherited from our forefathers. Both the Karnatak and Hindusthani classical musical schools had their origins in temples and worship and are thus spiritual in flavour and content. Of course, good, devotional music impacts the body positively. As doctors acknowledge today, stress has a 50 per cent hand in the onset of any ailment, for accumulated stress debilitates our immune system that is otherwise geared to stave off diseases. In the elderly body, challenged by age, stress can trigger off a number of problems like high blood pressure and hypertension. Music helps by evening down our breathing; deep breathing allows proper oxygenation of the entire body and revitalises it.

What is more important, to the mature mind – often contemplating issues like our eventual passage from this world, the shedding of the body and going back to the earth — devotional music provides a way of accepting and merging with the universe. For to pray is to connect with the whole, the universe (the sun, stars, rivers, sea, all humanity, all nature) and shed the ego (our consciousness of separateness). Prayer is the individual soul stretching itself and embracing the universe in its desire for completeness. In the act of prayer, the worshipper feels connected, complete, and hence joyous; in prayer, we lose ourselves. And music serves as the medium to achieve that loss. Whether it was Osho Rajneesh who propagated dance as the way to achieve that loss or Vivekananda who encouraged the regular singing of bhajans in his ashram, music has been recognised and practiced as a form of worship down the ages. It helps the mature mind to retain its poise, ease and cheerfulness.

17. Nada Yoga and Voice Culture

Mrs. Kala Ramesh, Pune


We talk of `voice culture’
What exactly do we mean by that?
A good voice, refined, tuned to shruti.
And lack of voice culture means a rough, untrained, off-key voice?
Yes partly true.
But actually, what I mean by voice culture is something more.

Voice culture means `protection’ for the voice against the ravages of time. Protection against lets say – deterioration of voice due to over usage, bad diet, exposure to extremities of climate and indiscriminate use of medicines.

We are all aware that Tansen was supposed to have sung in the open dais surrounded by a water moat and was heard for great distances. Would that have been possible without some type of technique for the preservation of the voice?

We do hear about the vulnerability of the sports personalities/ fraternity who repeatedly get medical treatment and rest because of constant injury to certain parts of their body. If we go by that logic, then it is but natural that the vocal cords can get strained during singing. And believe me `singing’ means many hours of sadhana spanning several years.

Then the logical question, can we have a voice without fatigue?

A voice that stays as fresh to day as it was say ten or fifteen years back?

So that, as the music ripens with age, the voice mellows with richness, retaining its entire luster and beginning to sparkle like a well cut diamond!

The need of the hour is becoming aware and knowing what voice culture is all about and then practicing it meticulously everyday, which then takes us closer to nada yoga.

Dr Karandikar [an Cardiology] of Ahmednagar near Pune has worked extensively in this field. Being a performing musician, he was tormented with the lack of anything constructive, concrete in the name of voice culture. He studied all the voice techniques of Western classical music but found that they pertained more to western type of voice production.

During the course of his search he found that Sant Dnyaneshwari [A Marathi Saint who translated The Gita into Marathi at the age of 13] had a whole chapter on the mahima of The AUM.

Dr. Karandikar based his Omkar Shakti completely on the firm belief that the Omkar dwani being the first ever primordial nad that permeated through the cosmos is best suited for purification of the voice, the mind and the body.

His systematic teaching covers wide areas covering the nad and anu- nad.

Thus, the whole package comes with forty different types of omkar-s along with proper breathing, position of the mouth, the throat, the stomach and the abdomen.

I will be demonstrating several of the omkar-s, with their benefits explained.

And how a well tuned and polished voice aids the singing voice and how it acts as a balm for the soul, for the singer as well as to the listener.

18. Nada Yoga: The Conscious Vibration

Mr. Chandra Sankara Pavan, Pune


Nada Yoga – The Conscious Vibration

Nada forms the basis for the emergence of the universe. The root word Nad is to vibrate and the vibrations are the manifestation of all pervading cosmic power. Every atom, molecule in the universe is in incessant vibrational activity and the interblending activities of these vibrations produce the vast diversity of the universe around us. We can classify these vibrations into three types

i……. the inner casual movements that are expressed through bodies
ii…….the vibrations that manifest on the astral , emotional and psychological levels
iii……the vibrations of intellectual level.

Nada is the manifested sound form of the soundless sound, the Supreme Consciousness, where from, emerges the Paranada that creates the universe. From Paranada the Nadanadisakti, the energy current of sound emerges and heard through the pulsing nerve system.

During deep meditation, the yogi hears the musical sounds of nada taking the form of sounds such as bells, conch, flute etc and deep contemplation on these sounds leads one to the Supreme consciousness

Nada forms the basis for music and music is considered as therapy both for mental and physical ailments. The sound vibrations can influence the DNA structure and can be reprogrammed by the words and frequencies. Music consists of systematic vibrations that can change the ill structure of DNA and can be used as an effective therapy.

The whole universe is filled with sound vibrations and the sound vibrations remain forever in space and they can be grasped only by the nada yogis who are able to unite their consciousness with the Supreme. The great seers of past formulated the Vedas by hearing the eternal sound vibrations that exists in the cosmos.

This paper presents the Theory of Nada, its four stages, and how it forms the basis for music, the theory of vibrations and the therapeutic aspects of sounds, particularly music

19. Therapeutic Effects of Music

Ms. Jyoti Dass and Dr. Lovely Sharma, Agra


Music is both an art and science since it deals with the expression of one’s feelings and emotions through sound in melody and harmony, may be through its composition. On the systematic management of sound at all levels in the universe, music is the oldest form of expression, older than language.

Music has frequently been used as a therapeutic agent since ancient times. The therapeutic values of music have been recognized and employed from a very early stage in the history of mankind and medicine. Music is a unique way of expressing feelings and thoughts. It is because of this power of fine expression of inner feelings in a natural manner, music is considered as an important medium of therapy as any other discipline of therapy.


General effects, Physiological effects, physical effects, effect on animals, effect on plants and effect on mental patients.


The scientific field of music therapy is still an unexplored area in India. A number of successful experiments have been made to assess the effect of raga-s on human beings by playing particular combinations of sound and also particular raga-s. Health cure with the help of classical raga with their specific emotional sentiment has also been experimented. Raga Ragini-s can be successfully used for the treatment of various diseases. But there is a need to train good musicians and medical professionals to become experts in this therapy .

Six primary ragas which have particular qualities, sentiments and moos are discussed.

1. Raga Hindol:
The effect of this raga is to create all the sweetness and freshnessof the spring season in mind of the listener.

2. Raga Shri:
This raga acts on the mind and produces the effect of calmness and silence while approaching the evening and darkness.

3. Raga Megh Malhar:
The quality of this raga is to produce the effect of approaching thunder-storm and rain. This raga has also been found to have the power of influencing clouds in times of drought.

4.Raga deepak:
This raga is said to be related to fire which can destroy the trees and animals.

5.Raga Bhairav:
This raga is to inspire the mind of the listener with the feeling of approaching dawn, humming insects and chirping of bird and the start of morning.

6.Raga Kaushik:
The effect of this raga on the listener is known to be grave and screen.

TABLE 1. Response of the Indian Ragas

Raga Responses
Puriya Dhanashri Physically tired,
Neelambari Sleep, relaxation
Kasi Pleasantness, Romance
Hansdhwani Exhilaration
Madhyamavati Aesthetic sense


Music therapy has no side effects and can be safely used as a therapy

20. Psychological effects of Music

Ms. Madhulika Srivatsav and Dr. Lovely Sharma, Agra


Among the psychological effects of music, the most pronounced ones are on the behaviour & temperament of the individual. Emotions, feelings and thoughts have been reported to be greatly influenced by music listening or participates. Emotional experience divided from music has a powerful effect on the formation of one’s moral and intellectual outlook. Music activities enhance imagination & creative thinking. Music has a great ability to inspire and enthuse the listener and the performer.

Cyril Burt (1969) has suggested that the capacities of mentally handicapped children in musical abilities are good as that of the average children of the same age. Further, music education has been employed as a means of improving the academic achievement of mentally handicapped children so that they feel themselves as part of the society.

Slac (1970) studied the effect of music psychology on slow learners, pupils and found that music had positive psychological effects in the normalization of their pent up emotions & developed their abilities to the full.

Psychology plays an important role in the all round development of personality of an individual right from infancy. It helps a child to learn through movement by singing and dancing together & by exposure to natural environment to participant in the joy of sensing colours, forms and rhythms. Music develops aesthetics values and provides opportunities in understanding India’s cultural heritage.

Tables of content

TABLE 2. Table of contents “Music Therapy – The Sacred and the Profane” edited by T V Sairam

Title Author Page
Acknowledgements Sumathy Sundar
Preface T.V. Sairam
Music Therapy, the Sacred, and the Profane Carolyn Kenny. 1
The Therapeutic Value of Musical Elements and Instruments in Western Music Psychotherapy Dorit Amir 4
Research Methodology for Music Therapy Shipra Banerjee 10
Music Therapy and the use of Altered States in Healing Rituals Fachner, Jorg 19
Music that heals the Mind and the Body Premeela Gurumoorthy 24
Acceptance of Music Therapy as Integrative Medicine: Progress in the United States of America Suzanne B. Hanser 28
The Specifics of Using Simple Instruments in sessions of Group Music Therapy for Depression Mariya A. Ivannikova 31
Drumming as Music Therapy Kiran Puri 38
Competent Music Therapy in the United States Michael G. McGuire 41
Raga-Chikitsa: A Treatment with Music Suvarna Nalapat 49
NadanusandanaYoga Chandra Pavan Sankara 56
Healing Quality of Musical Notes Lalitha Ramakrishna 66
Music Therapy: An Evidence-based Approach R Ravi Kannan 70
Music Therapy : Designing Training Methods for the Mentally Retarded (MR) Children T.V. Sairam 74
Music Procedures and their Impact on Emotional Health Seema Puri 79
Medical Music Therapy: The Florida State University’s Evidence-Based Clinical Program Jayne M. Standley. 81
Music as Therapy: Its Role as a Cognitive, Motor and Behavioural Modulator N. Subbulakshmy 87
Music therapy in India: General Guidelines on Musical Preferences and Approaches for Musical Selection Sumathy Sundar 91

TABLE 3. Table of contents Souvenier – 2006

Title Page
Welcome Message from Dr. Michael G McGuire, Chairman of the Board of Directors, CBMT. US. 1
Greetings and Congratulatory Message from Dr. Carolyn Kenny, Co Editor, Voices:A World forum for Music Therapy 3
Greetings and Message from Dr. Suzanne Hanser, Immediate Past President, World Federation of Music Therapy. 5
Message to Delegates – Dr. Dorit Amir, Head of MT Program,Bar Ilan University, Israel 7
Greetings from Dr. Jorg Fachner, Editor, E journal,, Managing Editor, Info site 9
Welcome Address by Sumathy Sundar, President, Nada Centre for Music Therapy, Chennai, India 12
Nada Centre for Music Therapy: Aims and Objectives 14
List of Members – Advisory Board of Nada Centre for Music Therapy 16
Conference – Programme Schedule 17
Music Therapy: From Evangelism to Science Inaugural Address by Dr. T V Sairam, Hon. Technical Advisor, Nada Centre for Music Therapy, Chennai. 20
Interdisciplinary Musical Sense for Soul Development with Collaborative Learning in Gerontology thro Learning from Life of Leonardo Da Vinci. Synopsis of Key Note Address by Dr.Ryo Takahashi, Chief Director at NCSA Centre for Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan. 24
Abstracts of the papers presented during the Conference 27
Can an Integration of Different Music Cultures be useful for Music Therapy? A Little Story about Indian Ragas by Mariya A Ivannikova, 44

Contact and order information:
Sumathy Sundar
Nada Centre for Music Therapy,
Plot No.11/25 Jothi Ramalingam Street,
Chennai 600 091, India

This article can be cited as:

Sundar, S. & Sairam, T.V. (2006) Therapeutic Usefulness of Music – Conference proceedings of the 1st International Conference, 15. January 2006, Nada Centre for Music Therapy, Chennai, India. Music Therapy Today Vol VII, Issue 1, 106-152. available at


1. Chief Director at NCSA Center for Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan

(Source: 01/2006 – Music Therapy Today)

Volume VII, Issue 1 (March 2006)



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